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从约伯记看基督得胜 (第二部)

从约伯记看基督得胜 (第二部)

  • 小孩子: 神会使祂的儿女会受苦吗?
  • 5:8 他虽然为儿子,还是因所受的苦难学了顺从。
  • 旧约是指向基督的 ( 24:44)许多旧约中的人物、事件、行为、物是预表主耶稣
  • Pic受苦的义仆约伯 预表义仆耶稣。

P 4 Pic背景:上帝允许撒旦攻击1:8-12、2:3-7,使到约伯受极大的苦  (a)一夜间破产,被抢掠1:15、1:17、火从天而降1:16)(b)7儿3女被房倒塌压死1:19 (c)得不死的怪病从脚头顶长毒疮 2:7-8 拿瓦片刮身体 (d)众判亲离。妻子叫他去死 2:9 朋友污蔑他是假冒为善的大罪人。 

  • (第二部)看约伯得胜,预表基督得胜
  • .1.】神的义仆最终得胜 The righteous servant triumph 
  • 神知道约伯一定得胜不会弃掉祂 (1:8、2:3、42:7)
  • 约伯得胜患难,他没有弃掉上帝
  • 1:11 你且伸手毁他一切所有的;他必当面弃掉你
  • Pic 第一次攻击(1:9-12)一夜间破产,一夜间7儿3女被压死
  • 1:20 约伯便起来,撕裂外袍,剃了头,伏在地上下拜,21 说:「我赤身出於母胎,也必赤身归回;赏赐的是耶和华,收取的也是耶和华。耶和华的名是应当称颂的
  • 2:4  撒但回答耶和华说:「人以皮代皮,情愿舍去一切所有的,保全性命。5  你且伸手伤他的骨头和他的肉,他必当面弃掉你。」
  • Pic第二次攻击(2:4-7)脚掌到头顶长毒疮(2:7-8)
  • 2:10 约伯却对她说:「你说话像愚顽的妇人一样。嗳!难道我们从神手里得福,不也受祸吗?在这一切的事上约伯并不以口犯罪
  • 约伯得胜没有弃掉神,只可惜后来他批评神的公义 40:6-7 定神为有罪。
  • Pic【主耶稣】预表主耶稣得胜
  • 16:33 … 在世上,你们有苦难;但你们可以放心,我已经胜了世界
  • 【我们也会得胜】耶稣应许他的小羊一定得胜
  • 10:27 我的羊听我的声音,我也认识他们,他们也跟著我。28  我又赐给他们永生;他们永不灭亡,谁也不能从我手里把他们夺去。
  • Hope 我们的主得胜。所以我们也能战胜所遇见的任何苦难 (罗8:37)
  • 提醒自己,我靠着主,我一定能够胜过所有困难 faith overcomes
  • 我们所事奉的是复活的主,不是在坟墓中的主!
  • .2.】神为祂的义仆洗刷冤屈
  • 42:7 耶和华对约伯说话以後,就对提幔人以利法说:我的怒气向你和你两个朋友发作,因为你们议论我不如我的仆人约伯说的是
  • : 约伯说对了什么?
  • 约伯明白所有苦难是神许可才可能会发生
  • 约伯一直说是神使他受苦!
  • 2:3(上帝对撒旦说)…你虽激动【我攻击他】,无故地毁灭他,他仍然持守他的纯正。

问:为什么神说是祂攻击约伯?

  • 神是那第一因 God is the first cause! 神不许可,撒旦无法攻击约伯
  • : 约伯的朋友错误的议论神什么?
  • 他们不认识神,他们认为神绝对不让义人受苦,所以约伯是大罪人
  • 他们污蔑约伯 (19:18-19、21:3、30:1)
  • 22:5 你的罪恶岂不是大吗?你的罪孽也没有穷尽;6  因你无故强取弟兄的物为当头,剥去贫寒人的衣服。7  困乏的人,你没有给他水喝;饥饿的人,你没有给他食物。
  • 神为约伯平反昭雪。为他洗刷冤屈,证明约伯才是对的。
  • 42:7 .. .我的怒气向你和你两个朋友发作,因为你们议论我不如我的仆人约伯说的是。
  • 主耶稣与约伯一样被人讥笑戏弄
  • 27:39从那里经过的人讥诮他,摇著头,说:40「你这拆毁圣殿、三日又建造起来的,可以救自己吧!你如果是神的儿子,就从十字架上下来吧!」41祭司长和文士并长老也是这样戏弄他,说:42「他救了别人,不能救自己。他是以色列的王,现在可以从十字架上下来,我们就信他。43他倚靠神,神若喜悦他,现在可以救他;因为他曾说:『我是神的儿子。』」44  那和他同钉的强盗也是这样的讥诮他
  • Pic【主耶稣】神为基督洗刷冤屈  [1]
  • 5:30 你们挂在木头上杀害的耶稣,我们祖宗的神已经叫他复活。31他就是神高举在自己的右边,叫他作君王,作救主…
  • 【我们】a.p.你被人讥笑辱骂。你要耐心等候主
  • a.p.主会为我们洗刷冤屈。(诗26:1、35:23、135:14) Wait for God to vindicate you
  • .3.】神立义仆为中保
  • 神责备三个朋友,命令他们要到约伯面前让约伯为他们代求
  • 42:8 现在你们要取七只公牛,七只公羊,到我仆人约伯那里去,为自己献上燔祭,我的仆人约伯就为你们祈祷。我因悦纳他,就不按你们的愚妄办你们。…
  • Pic【主耶稣】新约的中保(来7:22、罗 8:34  )
  • 8:34 …有基督耶稣已经死了,而且从死里复活,现今在神的右边,也替我们祈求
  • a.p.我无力祷告时,主安慰我。祂为我祷告
  • 【我们】[2]我们有时像三个朋友愚昧,主耶稣为我们代求。神不按我们的愚妄办我们,
  • .4.受苦完毕后神赐福高举义仆
  • 42:10…耶和华就使约伯从苦境转回,并且耶和华赐给他的比他从前所有的加倍。11约伯的弟兄、姊妹,和以先所认识的人都来见他,在他家里一同吃饭;又论到耶和华所降与他的一切灾祸,都为他悲伤安慰他。每人也送他一块银子和一个金环。12这样,耶和华後来赐福给约伯比先前更多。他有一万四千羊,六千骆驼,一千对牛,一千母驴。13他也有七个儿子,三个女儿。
  • Pic【主耶稣】受苦[3]完毕后,神赐福耶稣把主耶稣升为至高。
  • 2:9  所以,神将他升为至高,又赐给他那超乎万名之上的名,10  叫一切在天上的、地上的,和地底下的,因耶稣的名无不屈膝,11 无不口称「耶稣基督为主」,使荣耀归与父神。
  • 【我们】一些弟兄姐妹进入大患难,信心胜过试炼后,我看见主恩待他们
  • e.g.约伯学因所受的苦难学了顺从(伯42:1-6 、 来5:8)
  • e.g.约伯、雅各、约瑟、摩西、拿俄米与路得、大卫。
  • 他们曾受苦,后来神赐福,并高举他们
  • 5:11 那先前忍耐的人,我们称他们是有福的。你们听见过约伯的忍耐,也知道主给他的结局,明显主是满心怜悯,大有慈悲。

[1] 罗1:4 按圣善的灵说,因从死里复活,以大能显明是神的儿子。(提前3:16)

[2] 我们也能像约伯一样为人代求ap主耶稣也使我们成为祭司(彼前2:5、2:9、启1:6) 雅5:16所以你们要彼此认罪,互相代求,使你们可以得医治。义人祈祷所发的力量是大有功效的。

[3] 来 5:8  他虽然为儿子,还是因所受的苦难学了顺从。

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从约伯记看基督受苦

从约伯[1]记看基督受苦 part one

  • 小孩子:善有善报,恶有恶报对不对?(常例、特例)。上帝会让爱祂的人受苦吗?
  • 旧约是指向基督的

P 24:44摩西的律法、先知的书,和诗篇上所记的,凡指著我的话都必须应验。」

  • 许多旧约中的人物、事件、行为、物是预表主耶稣。
  • Pic e.g.摩西(约1:45、徒3:30-23、7:37)、祭司(来5:6-10)、大卫(结34:23、路1:32)、所罗门(太12:42)、约拿(太12:39-40)、以色列(何11:1、太2:15) 等都预表耶稣。
  • Pic旧约的约伯受苦[2],其实预表耶稣的受苦

P 6 Pic背景上帝允许撒旦攻击约伯1:8-12、2:3-7,使到约伯受极大的苦  (a)一夜间破产,被抢掠1:15、1:17、火从天而降1:16)(b)7儿3女被房倒塌压死1:19 (c)得不死的怪病从脚头顶长毒疮 2:7-8 拿瓦片刮身体 (d)众判亲离。妻子叫他去死 2:9 朋友污蔑他是假冒为善的大罪人。 

  • 问:上帝使约伯受那么多苦,约伯是恶人还是义人?

P.1 】神的义仆受痛苦 The Righteous Servant suffers

P1:1 ….约伯;那人完全正直,敬畏神,远离恶事8 …地上再没有人像他完全正直,敬畏神,远离恶事…2:3 …地上再没有人像他完全正直,敬畏神,远离恶事

  • Pic旧约中义人受苦(创4:8、50:20、传9:1-3、诗73:2-3、太27:46)
  • 问:为什么义人要受苦?
  • 神没有给所有原因与答案,预表将来上帝的儿子(完美义人)要受苦。
  • Pic约伯不是那完美的受苦的义仆 (9:15-2412:616:1234:1734:35-37)

P 9:17 他用暴风折断我,无故地加增我的损伤18  我就是喘一口气,他都不容,倒使我满心苦恼。…22  善恶无分,都是一样;所以我说,完全人和恶人,他都灭绝23  若忽然遭杀害之祸,他必戏笑无辜的人遇难24 世界交在恶人手中;蒙蔽世界审判官的脸,若不是他,是谁呢

  • 约伯非常生气神。他明白他所遭遇一切都是神允许才会发生的!
  • 他没有怪土匪、天灾、病菌、或撒旦。
  • 问:你是否也生气神?Are you angry with God
  • A.p. 🙏不叫我遇见试探救我脱离凶恶 (太6:13)
  • 问:神为何把约伯的忿怒记载下来? 帮助受苦的人
  • e.g.爱主的姐妹受极大痛苦,3位最亲的人2-3年内离世。
  • 神向约伯显现责备他,因他定神有罪

P40:6 於是,耶和华从旋风中回答约伯说:7  你要如勇士束腰;我问你,你可以指示我。8    

   你岂可废弃我所拟定(新译本:审断)的?岂可定我有罪,好显自己为义吗

PPic【主耶稣】唯有耶稣是完美的受苦的义仆 (赛53:7-9、彼前2:22-23)

P.2.】义仆按神的计划受苦 The Righteous servant suffered under God’s plan

  • 是上帝允许撒旦攻击约伯1:8-12、2:3-7
  • 1:12 耶和华对撒但说:「凡他所有的都在你手中;只是不可伸手加害於他。」….(后来撒但第一次攻击约伯)……2:6 耶和华对撒但说:「他在你手中,只要存留他的性命。」(后来撒但第二次攻击约伯
  • Pic【主耶稣】被害受死。也是天父意旨所预定的事 (徒4:27-28)
  • 【我们】有一些神的义人是可能会经历、约瑟、大卫、约伯、基督所受的苦
  • e.g.约伯在(结14:14、14:20)三大仆人之一:挪亚、但以理、约伯
  • 问:你在受苦吗?

P彼前4:19 所以那照神旨意受苦的人要一心为善,将自己灵魂交与那信实的造化之主

  • 有一天你们神要擦干我们一切的眼泪 (启7:17、21:4)
  • .3.】义仆身体受苦 The Righteous servant suffer physically
  • 2:7 。。。他从脚掌头顶长毒疮。约伯就坐在炉灰中,拿瓦片刮身体。。。。7:5  我的肉体以虫子和尘土为衣;我的皮肤才收了口又重新破裂。
  • 问:除了地狱有什么比死更可怕? 可怕的是死不了,身体不断被折磨。
  • O伯3:21-22 想死却死不了…找到坟墓就高兴,非常欢喜快乐。
  • Pic【主耶稣】约伯预表基督也身体受苦
  • (新译本)52:14…他的容貌毁损得不像人,他的形状毁损得不像世人
  • 耶稣受鞭打39下(太27:26、约19:1)然后钉十字架
  • …因他受鞭伤,“我们”便得了医治。彼前2:24
  • .4.】义仆受朋友与仇敌苦待
  • 仇敌让你受苦理所当然。但朋友家人给你受苦是极苦的。
  • e.g.约伯面对众叛亲离 (妻子、朋友厌弃他)
  • 2:9 他的妻子对他说:「你仍然持守你的纯正吗?你弃掉神,死了吧!」
  • 注:同情妻子受苦(孩子死,破产、丈夫病)
  • 16:7但现在神使我困倦,使亲友远离我…11神把我交给不敬虔的人,把我扔到恶人的手中。
  • 三朋友:提以利法、比勒达、琐法 原想安慰约伯(2:11),后来却诬陷约伯犯大罪
  • 约伯受朋友苦待
  • Pic【主耶稣】约伯预表基督也要受朋友与仇敌苦待
  • e.g.犹大出卖耶稣(太10:4) e.g.彼得 3次不认主
  • 【我们】a.p.如果你面对众叛亲离,你不是独自一人。
  • 。。。。主说:我总不撇下你,也不丢弃你。来 13:5
  • .5.】义仆受神暂时抛弃的苦
  • 有时主不听祷告,是因为我们悖逆祂(申31:18、赛59:2)
  • a.p.若因罪孽,神掩面不顾你。当在主前昼夜流泪洗脸,不断寻求主向祂倾心悔改(哀2:11
  • 但问题是: 义人有时也可能面对主掩面不顾
  • 13:24 你为何掩面、拿我当仇敌呢?
  • Pic 大卫多次受仇敌伤害追杀时感到神不顾他(诗6:3、10:1、13:1、22:1-2、27:9、35:17、55:1、69:17、143:7)[3]
  • 可怕的经历:义人好像被主丢弃
  • Pic【主耶稣】神的儿子主耶稣也经历这样的痛苦。
  • 27:46 约在申初,耶稣大声喊著说:「以利!以利!拉马撒巴各大尼?」就是说:「我的神!我的神!为什麽离弃我?」
  • 主耶稣需为了我们的罪孽,为我们尝尽痛苦(赛53:4-5)
  • 【我们】神啊,祢为何掩面不顾我们?
  • 受苦读约伯记,诗篇会教导我们如何祷告
  • 5:11 看哪,那些忍耐的人,我们称他们是有福的;你们听过约伯的忍耐,也看见了主赐给他的结局,知道主是满有怜悯和仁慈的。

总结:

  • 旧约义人受苦预表主耶稣。 24:44 
  • 求主赐忍耐给受苦的人

[1] 一些的观点是来自Bob Sorge

[2] If Job’s early success corresponds to Christ’s earthly ministry, his trial corresponds to Christ’s death, and his restoration corresponds to Christ’s resurrection.In the book of Job, the most upright man on earth (Job 1:8) suffers the most of anyone on earth. That definitely reminds me of Christ’s cross. Bob Sorge

[3] 其它诗人也经历被神抛弃的感受 (诗44:24、80:4、88:24、89:46、94:3-4、102:2)

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新天新地 赛 65章17至24

和合本 承受新世界(新天新地)赛 65章17至24

  • 小孩子:狮子、与蛇你敢空手抱他们吗? 你梦想去哪里?
  • 5 Pic 新世界)一些画家所凭构想画出来的
  • 65:17-24
  • Pic这世界正在走向毁坏中 e.g.不信主的科学家
  • 将来火也会消灭这世界(彼后3:7-12、启20:9-10)然后主更新世界 transformation
  • Pic我们要继承新天新地(太5:5、约14:2、罗4:13、弗1:14、来11:10、13:14、启21:2、21:10-27)
  • 离世后去天堂只是暂时的(路23:43、启6:9),因为将来我们要复活继承神为我们造的新世界

.1)神为我们造新天新地 (*赛11:6-9、65:17-24、彼后3:13、启21:1-5)

  • 65:17  看哪!我造新天[1]新地;
  • 更好、更美的:全新的天 new heavens (skies) 全新的地。更好更美的。
  • 这新天新地不是指1000年在地上的国 (历史前千、时代论)
  • 因为:不再有死亡(启21:4)、所有罪人面对第二次的死(启21:8)
  • Pic e.g.复活的身体(不朽坏、荣耀、属灵身体 林前15:35-50)血肉之体不能承受神的国

.2)幸福到不再追念今世愁苦

  • 17...从前的事[2]不再被记念,也不再追想。18 你们当因我所造的永远欢喜快乐[3];因我造耶路撒冷[4]为人所喜,造其中的居民为人所乐。19 我必因耶路撒冷欢喜[5],因我的百姓快乐;其中必不再听见哭泣的声音和哀号的声音。
  • Pic今世许多哭泣、哀号 e.g.(生、老、病、死)
  • Pic问:从前的事不再被记念,也不再追想?为什么?
  • 我们将欢喜快乐,不再追念之前所受的苦
  • 比喻:e.g.妇人怀孕生产(孩子生出时妇人是喜乐的)e.g.高考得到好成绩时
  • V18 你们当因我所造的永远欢喜快乐; (这喜乐是永远的!)
  • Pic 从此他们永远每天都过着幸福快乐的生活 lived happily ever after
  • a.p.明白,就不会在意今世所得不到的。 也会看淡今世所失去的。
  • V19 我必因耶路撒冷欢喜[6],因我的百姓快乐
  • 神爱我们!神与我们一同欢喜,祂因我们喜乐而快乐!
  • .(3) 不再面对死亡与任何痛苦
  • 不再有死亡(启21:4)、病痛、苦难、天灾、人祸
  • V19 …其中必不再听见哭泣的声音和哀号的声音。
  • V20 其中必没有数日夭亡的婴孩,也没有寿数不满的老者;因为百岁死的仍算孩童,有百岁死的罪人算被咒诅[7]
  • 这里不是指在新天新地中有死亡或咒诅
  • 注:一些我敬重的牧者使用这节经文来支持这是1000年国[8]度所要发生的死亡
  • 问:请问这里有谁认识活100岁以上的人?难见!
  • 100岁算被咒诅:比喻人的寿命将很长。 PMotyer, J. A.  and Smith, G.
  • V19-20(比喻永生) 的4个理由
  • (a)上文(V18-19) 指出不再有哭泣!
  • 18 ..永远欢喜快乐..19 必不再听见哭泣的声音和哀号的声音。(暗示不再有死亡)
  • (b)新天新地只有永远欢喜快乐V17-19
  • (c)赛25:6–9 提起在神的山上(V25),神必吞灭死亡直到永远
  • (d)启示录解释 赛65:17-24 说不再有死亡
  • 21:1 我又看见一个新天新地;因为先前的天地已经过去了。。。4  神要擦去他们一切的眼泪;不再有死亡,也不再有悲哀、哭号、疼痛,因为以前的事都过去了
  • Pic我们得了秦始皇一直梦想的长生不老![9]
  • Pic 今天社会供楼奴?
  • .4)新社会与新世界 new world and new society  
  • V21 他们要建造房屋,自己居住;栽种葡萄园,吃其中的果子。[10]22  他们建造的,别人不得住;他们栽种的,别人不得吃;因为我民的日子必像树木的日子;我选民亲手劳碌得来的必长久享用。23  他们必不徒然劳碌,所生产的(新译本:他们生孩子不再受惊吓),也不遭灾害,因为都是蒙耶和华赐福的後裔;他们的子孙[11]也是如此[12]
  • 今世工作非常劳苦,因地了咒诅 (创3:17)
  • e.g.今世有时劳苦未必看见成果
  • e.g.今世有时人把我们辛苦的功劳抢走。
  • V22  他们建造的,别人不得住;他们栽种的,别人不得吃
  • 问:一听到将来还要工作,你们失望吗?
  • 新社会 new society 公义的社会!
  • e.g.不在有罪,不再有战争、偷窃、欺负。彼此相爱的新社会
  • V21建造房屋,自己居住;栽种葡萄园,吃其中的果子
  • e.g.人人有房的社会!不像今世辛辛苦苦供楼
  • V22  因为我民的日子必像树木的日子;我选民亲手劳碌得来的必长久享用。
  • 像树木的日子(比喻长命)
  • V23 他们必不徒然劳碌,所生产的(新译本:他们生孩子不再受惊吓)[13],也不遭灾害, ,因为都是蒙耶和华赐福的後裔;他们的子孙也是如此
  • 因为将来人不娶也不嫁(太22:30)。可能是比喻子孙不受祸害,而不是真的要生产
  • e.g.不再像现今有些孩子离世 (伯3:16、诗58:8)
  • e.g.现今有时,子孙落难, 孩子受灾。以后将不再发生!
  • .5)主必即刻应允我们所有祷告
  • V24 他们尚未求告,我就应允;正说话的时候,我就垂听。
  • 今世之中我们有时祷告的很辛苦
  • e.g.有时因为我们悖逆神,神暂时不听我们祷告 (赛1:15、诗80:4)
  • e.g.一些祷告神不应允,因为我们妄求 (雅4:3)
  • e.g.有时是神实验与试炼我们 (创22:1、彼前4:12、雅1:12、林后12:8-10)
  • e.g.有时我们受苦时神好像不愿听我们祷告
  • 22:1(大卫的诗,交与伶长。调用朝鹿。)我的神,我的神!为什麽离弃我?为什麽远离不救我?不听我唉哼的言语?2  我的神啊,我白日呼求,你不应允,夜间呼求,并不住声。
  • e.g.许多事我们都需要付出不断努力昼夜呼求 (路18:7) don’t give up !
  • 将来就不一样了。因为我们尚未求告,神就应允;我们正说话的时候,神就垂听。
  • .6)万物和睦平安
  • V25 豺狼必与羊羔同食;狮子必吃草与牛一样;尘土必作蛇[14]的食物。在我圣山[15]的遍处,这一切都不伤人,不害物。这是耶和华说的。[16]
  • 亚当还未犯罪前,人与动物本来是和睦相处的。走兽和飞鸟原本以植物为食物[17](创1:30)
  • 人犯罪所以万物受到人牵连, 一切受造之物一同劳苦叹息 (罗8:22)
  • 动物之间不再彼此厮杀!
  • Pic e.g.将来可以饲养狮子、黑熊为宠物
  • V25… 尘土必作蛇的食物。…
  • e.g.创3:14 蛇终身吃土dust you shall eat all the days of your life
  • 预表:在新天新地中魔鬼依然受咒诅 (启20:10)
  • V25… 在我圣山的遍处,这一切都不伤人,不害物。这是耶和华说的。…
  • e.g.不再有任何害物 e.g.不再害怕病毒。
  • Pic总结:
  • Pic 人的罪大地受咒诅 VS,基督将再造新天新地

[1] What does the creation of a new heavens then denote? Earlier parts of this book have made it clear enough that problems in the heavens and on earth are two sides of a single coin. The heavens are the garrison of supernatural forces whose battling lies behind battles on earth (13:5), the heavens mirror the actions of Yahweh on earth (13:10), and the heavens are shaken as the earth is when Yahweh acts in wrath (13:13). The armies on high as well as the powers on earth must be put in their place (24:21). The destruction of evil in heaven (34:4–5) must accompany the destruction of evil and opposition on earth. The darkness of heaven both mirrors and brings gloom on earth (50:3). The heavens are as transient as the earth (51:6).

This talk moves between referring to the heavens as part of the physical cosmos and as part of the metaphysical cosmos. Again these are two sides of one coin (cf. 24:23). The idea of the heavens constitutes the Israelite vision of the crowded heavens of Middle Eastern stories about the gods, except that here there is no doubt that Yahweh has ultimate power over all other supernatural forces, whereas in those other stories power moves to and fro. We may find it difficult to work with the mythical language of such pictures, but it is equally difficult to find another way of picturing the reality to which it refers. That reality is the fact that the conflicts, violence, and power struggles of earth cannot be explained in purely earthly terms. There is also “war in heaven” (Rev. 12:7).Goldingay, J.

[2] 赛65:16  。。因为,从前的患难已经忘记,也从我眼前隐藏了。

[3]  (the first two verbs are imperative and need not be translated as future)12 to rejoice and be glad forever on account of what God is about to create.Young, E.

[4] create Jerusalem. It will be altogether new with no remembrance of the sins of the old city (Rev. 21:1, 2), thereby accomplishing God’s purpose for it in the beginning (see Ps. 48:1).The Reformation Study Bible.

People from all nations will come to learn from God at Jerusalem, and war will end (2:2–4; 14:1–2; 19:18–25); the holy survivors of Israel will come to a newly created Jerusalem (4:2–6); there will be peace between the animals and people (11:6–9), praise of God and banqueting (25:1–26:6), the end of sorrows, a time of great prosperity, a new light (30:18–26), an outpouring of the Spirit and justice and peace (32:15–20), and the transformation of nature (35:1–10). This new world will involve the coming of the glory of the Lord to Mount Zion where he will rule and care for his people (40:5–11; 60:1–3).Smith, G.

[5] Calvin appropriately remarks: “So great is his love toward us, that he delights in our prosperity not less than if he enjoyed it along with us.” “In all their affliction He was afflicted,” but also in all our joy He rejoices.Young, E.

[6] Calvin appropriately remarks: “So great is his love toward us, that he delights in our prosperity not less than if he enjoyed it along with us.” “In all their affliction He was afflicted,” but also in all our joy He rejoices.Young, E.

[7] It is not meant to suggest that death will still be present. This would contradict for ever (18), no more (19) and the death of death in 25:7–8. It simply affirms that, over the whole of life, the power of death will be gone. The only exception is that (lit.) ‘the sinner, a hundred years old, will be accursed’ (20fg). There will, of course, be no sinners in the new Jerusalem (6–7, 12, 15c). We are again dealing with metaphor: even if, per impossibile, a sinner were to escape detection for a century, the curse would still search him out and destroy him. In reality, just as death will have no more power, so sin too will have no more place. Motyer, J. A.

In the second part of the verse the opposite truth is expressed. The youth who is one hundred years old14 will die, i.e. when one dies at the age of one hundred, he shall be regarded as merely a youth, the implication being that he had yet far more life to live. Likewise, when death cuts off a sinful15 man, it does so when he has lived a hundred years. Men will die, and death is a curse; and when that curse comes as a punishment for sin, as it does even to God’s people, the sinner will be a hundred years old. Thus, one of the blessings of the new age is that of longevity. Basic to this promise is probably the conception already expressed in Genesis 6:3. The conditions of Paradise are to be restored, but the new age will surpass Paradise.Young, E.

The reference to death and a curse on the sinner presents some problems, for one would not expect these to be present in the new heavens and the new earth (cf. 26:6–9).600 Muilenburg resolves the problem about “sinners” being present in this kingdom by translating this definite participle as, “the one who comes short”601 (i.e., of 100 years) will be under a curse. Although it is impossible to make this description of God’s final kingdom exactly identical to 25:6–9,602 these examples (the infant and the old man) should be interpreted primarily as illustrations of the unusual positive conditions that will be present at that time. Since there will be no sinners in God’s final kingdom and all the people will be holy (62:12) and righteous (60:21), it appears that the last illustration of someone being cursed by God is more of a hypothetical situation drawn from life in this sinful world. It was used merely to illustrate the point that people will live a very long time. Thus, if one lived only 100 years, people would think that person was under some curse. Of course, people will not live to be just 100 years old and people will not be under a curse in God’s newly created world. Smith, G. .

[8] They are examples drawn from this life, but that does not limit the reference to the millennial reign, Oswalt, J. N.

[9] 新天新地到来时,我们将拥有复活荣耀属灵不朽坏的身体!(林前15:50-53)

[10]  In the law it had been prophesied that due to the nation’s disobedience it would not be able to enjoy the houses it had built nor the fruit of its labors (cf. Deut. 28:30; cf. also Zeph. 1:13 and Mic. 6:15). In the new age, however, the very opposite will prevail. Young, E.

[11] The family provides a topical inclusio to the first two related sections (21a, 23cd). This is in line with the Abrahamic covenant (Gn. 17:7), ‘you and your seed’.Motyer, J. A.

[12] They are a seed consisting of those whom God has blessed. Seed may be taken in the sense of generation, but it may also mean descendants. If this latter is correct the thought is that they are descended from those whom God has blessed. With them, in that they have not been lost through premature death, are their offspring (cf. Job 21:8). Thus, the redeemed with their offspring live together in blessedness, for they are the seed of blessed ones. Young, E.

[13]  There is no darker cloud over a parent’s life than to see tragedy touch a beloved child on whom love and hope is set. Such will never be the case in the new Jerusalem, for ‘they will be a seed blessed by the Lord’. This blessing comes in accordance with the promise to the ‘seed’ in Genesis 17:7 and, more immediately, because they are the ‘seed’ of the Servant (53:10). And their descendants/‘what proceeds out from them’ is a noun in Hebrew, from √yāṣā’ (‘to go out’), therefore, indicating the direct line from parent to child. Here ‘their line’ are with them in enjoying the blessing of the Lord. Not only will they not see their children blighted by tragedy but they will see them one with themselves in the things of God. Motyer, J. A.

[14] There is no reference to the great agent of the fall, the serpent, in 11:6ff. but it is accurately in position here (pace BHS). The only point in the whole of the new creation where there is no change (cf. verse 20fg) is in the curse pronounced on sin, which still stands (cf. Gn. 3:14).Motyer, J. A.

[15] For the whole is my holy mountain, the place where the Lord in holiness dwells in the midst of his people, and now, they with him. Motyer, J. A.

[16] It has long been recognized that v. 25 offers a compendium of the messianic oracle of 11:6–9. Two lines between the passages are virtually identical: “the lion will eat straw like the ox” and “They will not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain.” The first line of v. 25 picks up the vocabulary of 11:6, but refashions it into the larger pattern of juxtaposing the predator with the prey. The line “dust will be the serpent’s food” is a play on Gen. 3:14, which describes the curse of the serpent at the Fall. Childs, B. S.

[17] 在人未堕落前,神只把菜蔬、果子给人当食物(创1:29)

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016 传福音 约4章25至42

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016 传福音 约4章25至42

  • Pic小孩子:传福音时你会告诉人你所作的坏事,然后告诉人耶稣救你吗?
  • 4:25-42
  • Pic 上文:耶稣揭开她的秘密(以前有5个丈夫),她意识到耶稣是先知 (V19)
  • 她问耶稣有关敬拜的事(V20),主把敬拜的真谛教了她(心灵与诚实、圣灵与真理)V24
  • .1. 传福音:需信耶稣就是那要来的基督
  • 4:25 妇人说:“我知道那称为基督的弥赛亚[1]要来;他来了,要把一切都告诉我们。”26  耶稣说:“我这现在跟你说话的就是他[2]。”
  • 背景:撒马利亚人只接受摩西五经,基督弥赛亚观念=「复兴者」或「再來者」Taheb
  • 18:15 耶和华你的神要从你们弟兄中间给你兴起一位先知,像我,你们要听从他。…
  • 传福音之前必须信耶稣所说,祂就是基督!不然你传的只不过是宗教。
  • .2. 传福音:主能使用我们的失败、软弱、苦难的经历来见证祂
  • V27正在这时候,门徒[3]回来了,见耶稣和一个妇人说话,就很希奇[4];但是没有人问[5]:“你要什么?”或说:“你为什么跟她说话?”28 那妇人撇下了她的水罐[6],进到城里去,对众人说:29“你们来,看看一个人,他把我所作的一切都说出来,难道这人就是基督吗?”30众人就出城[7],往耶稣那里去。
  • 惊人:撒马利亚妇人却大胆开始传福音
  • 注:她竟然撇下她的水罐。她的行动表露出了喜乐与迫切。
  • V28 那妇人撇下了她的水罐,进到城里去,对众人说
  • 她之前躲避群众(正午打水),现在竟然跑到众人面前作见证!
  • V29“你们来,看看一个人,他把我所作的一切都说出来,难道这人就是基督吗?
  • 她竟然用她的人生悲剧、黑暗,来见证耶稣
  • V39  因着那妇人作见证的话:“他把我所作的一切都说出来了[8]”,那城里就有许多撒玛利亚人信了耶稣
  • a.p.很多人不明白,以为苦难、人生悲剧不能成为我们见证主的方式
  • e.g.一些不明白神的作为的弟兄姐妹!误以为要成功、财富、健康、才能见证主
  • e.g.我见证过许多人遇到悲剧后,却全家人信主!
  • Pic e.g.假设你现在怀孕但医生告诉你,你怀的孩子是残疾人士,没有手脚。你会如何?
  • e.g.假设是你失去手脚,你认为你还是有用的人吗?
  • Pic 力克·胡哲 Nick Vujicic 神使用他的人生悲剧向千万人布道!
  • 不要自怜、埋怨神,不要认为你的悲惨的一生,无法荣耀神
  • 55:8 耶和华说:我的意念非同你们的意念;我的道路非同你们的道路。9  天怎样高过地,照样,我的道路高过你们的道路;我的意念高过你们的意念。
  • 林后 12:9  他对我说:「我的恩典够你用的,因为我的能力是在人的软弱上显得完全。」。。
  • 问:你是否愿意说:主我愿意,我在这里,请差遣我?
  • .3. 传福音:是遵行神的旨意,作神的工
  • V31 当时,门徒对耶稣说:“拉比,请吃。”32 耶稣说:“我有食物吃[9],是你们所不知道的。”33 门徒就彼此说:“难道有人拿东西给他吃了吗[10]?”34 耶稣说:“我的食物[11]就是遵行差我来者的旨意,并且完成他的工作[12]。…
  • 吃午饭的时间到了。但耶稣却看见灵魂得救的更大需要。
  • 比喻:主耶稣用食物来比喻,传福音有如食物
  • O V34 耶稣说:“我的食物就是遵行差我来者的旨意,并且完成他的工作
  • 天父的旨意:耶稣为世人的罪上十字架,使凡信祂的人得永生(6:38-40、17:4)
  • 天父的工作:传天国的福音,包括在地上做完全人
  • 传福音是遵行神的旨意,作神的工
  • Ap.我们必须把传福音视为食物一样
  • Ap.传福音是教会集体e.g.一个带人、一个传、一个栽培、一个作朋友、另一个怜悯、一个帮助
  • Ilust: 圣灵感动我全时间事奉的其中一处经文。虽我世界的工作非常忙碌,但我事奉时饱足。
  • .4.传福音:撒种的和收割
  • V35你们不是说‘还有四个月[13]才到收获的时候’吗?我告诉你们,举目向田观看,庄稼已经熟了,可以收割了。36 收割的人得到工资[14],也积储五谷直到永生[15],使撒种的和收割的一同快乐[16]。37‘这人撒种,那人收割’,这话是真的。38 我派你们去收割你们所没有劳苦的;别人[17]劳苦,你们却享受他们劳苦的成果。”
  • Pic V34庄稼已经熟了,可以收割了 …  比喻撒马利亚人信主的时候到了
  • Pic撒种的人比喻传福音的人(摩9:11-13)  收割的人比喻带人信主的人
  • Pic 收的五谷(工资)比喻信主的人
  • V36…积储五谷直到永生 …  比喻信主的人要得永生 (带人信主有永恒的价值)
  • e.g.第一次带领人信主,所得的喜乐极大
  • V36...使撒种的和收割的一同快乐(圣经的原则将来一同得赏赐)
  • 提醒:传福音有时有两种人 (撒种 与 收割)
  • 不是每一个人都能收割(带领他决志信主)
  • V37‘这人撒种,那人收割’,这话是真的。38 我派你们去收割你们所没有劳苦的;别人劳苦,你们却享受他们劳苦的成果。”
  • 之前已经有人幸苦的向撒马利亚人传福音[18]? 摩西?施洗约翰?撒马利亚妇人?耶稣?
  • 不知是谁,只知道应该有几位撒种(V38他们劳苦)
  • 提醒:收割不要骄傲,那人信主前往往已有无数人不断向他撒种
  • 收割要感恩,收割是神的恩典
  • e.g.这位布道家好厉害,带领那么多人信主。却不知背后许多默默幸劳撒种的人!
  • 撒种不要气馁,因为神所拣选的人最终必被收割
  • 撒种要喜乐,是在做神的工作,应当要快乐!
  • e.g.之前我小学时期有一教会的老师,在我的小学基督教团契中做了6年撒种的工作
  • e.g.有一位基督徒的阿姨努力法传福音给我母亲。帮助我妈妈把我送到基督教的小学。
  • e.g.我小时去团契因为有的玩,有玩具,有朋友,老师有爱心。种子撒在我心里了,等候发芽。
  • e.g.有一位陌生的姐姐把她的圣经给了我。 撒种的工作
  • e.g.后来我要信主,我告诉我的朋友,他就带我作决志祷告(他就轻轻松松的把我收割了)
  • .5. 传福音:教导人耶稣的话
  • V40 于是他们来到耶稣那里,求他和他们同住,耶稣就在那里住了两天。41 因着耶稣的话,信他的人就更多了。42 他们就对那妇人说:“现在我们信,不再是因为你的话,而是因为我们亲自听见了,知道这位真是世人[19]的救主。”
  • 我们的任务使到他们信,不是因为我们生活的见证。
  • 带领人信主后,必须教导他们圣经 (今天耶稣的话都记载在圣经中)
  • Ap 教会有真理生命课程
  • V39 因着那妇人作见证的话:“他把我所作的一切都说出来了”,那城里就有许多撒玛利亚人信了耶稣。
  • 问:你愿意神这样使用你吗?
  • 祈求主兴起更多以神的工作为粮食的人
  • 祈求主赐我们恩典,也让我们收割。收割时不要骄傲,要感恩!

[1] the woman may have done so here in deference to her Jewish interlocutor. Samaritans preferred ‘Taheb’ (cf. notes on 4:4, 11–12, 19–20), ‘the Restorer’, or possibly ‘he who returns’. When he comes, he will explain everything to us: that is more typically a Samaritan than a Jewish expectation. By and large Jews did not think of the Messiah primarily as a teacher (except perhaps as a teacher of the Gentiles: SB 2. 348; though cf. CD 6:11). By contrast, Samaritans pictured the Taheb as one who would reveal the truth, in line with his role as the ultimate prophet (Dt. 18:15–19; cf. Schnackenburg, 1. 441). John himself understands that Jesus is the ‘revealer’ in ways that outstrip both Jewish and Samaritan expectation (1:18; 14:6; etc.).Carson, D. A

the Samaritan concept most equivalent to the Jewish messiah appears to be quite different from the Jewish concept. They spoke not of a Davidic messiah, nor actually much of an “anointed” (messianic) agent per se, but of the “Taheb,” the “restorer,” a prophet like Moses.369 Like Moses (see comment on 6:15), the Taheb would also rule.Keener, C. S.  

[2]主却嘱咐门徒们不可告诉犹太人祂就是基督(太16:20)因犹太人要的是地上政治的君王。因为犹太人心目中的基督是地上征战政治的君王,后来要强迫他为王 (约6:15)主耶稣第一次来是作天国的君王,不是地上政治性的君王。主耶稣必须先上十字架,受死复活,然后升天在天上作王掌管世界与历史直到祂驾云第二次回来。

It is entirely in line with this Gospel that Jesus should unambiguously declare himself to be the Messiah to a Samaritan, but not to his own people. For many Jews, the title ‘Messiah’ carried so much political and military baggage that his self-disclosure in such settings necessarily had to be more subdued and subtle (cf. notes on 6:15; 10:24). Similarly, in the Synoptics Jesus is far more likely to encourage the public testimony of those who have experienced his transforming power if they live in Gentile territory (e.g. Lk. 8:26–39).Carson, D. A..

[3] 门徒此时生命还未成长,他们稀奇耶稣为何与撒马利亚人说话。门徒们并没有看见撒马利亚人妇人与耶稣说话就抓紧机会传福音!背景:门徒被种族意识所局限,不愿与撒马利亚人交流(犹太人与撒马利亚人是世仇)提醒:栽培门徒需时间耐心等候!门徒后来被圣灵充满便到撒马利亚传福音 (徒8:14)

[4] no rabbi would have carried on a conversation with a woman. One of their sayings ran, “A man shall not be alone with a woman in an inn, not even with his sister or his daughter, on account of what men may think. A man shall not talk with a woman in the street, not even with his own wife, and especially not with another woman, on account of what men may say.”67 Yet, though the disciples were astonished, they did not question the action of the woman (the first hypothetical question) or that of their Master (the second). They had learned enough to know that, while Jesus did not always respect the conventions of the rabbis, he had good reasons for what he did. Morris, L. .

[5] It is unduly sentimental to suppose that they restrained themselves because they had learned from experience to trust their Master’s good reasons for what he did: they do not consistently exercise similar restraint elsewhere. Carson, D. A..

[6] Many have suggested that, whatever her reason, John detects a profound symbolism: in her eagerness to enjoy the new and living water, she abandons the old water jar, and thus speaks of renunciation of the old ceremonial forms of religion in favour of worship in spirit and truth. It is far from clear, however, that John means to say so much; for, unlike the water jars of 2:6ff., this one has no ritual purification tied up with it.Carson, D. A.

Because John employs the same term in 2:6–7, we may infer a continuation of the replacement motif highlighted there and frequently in John’s water motif.391 Just as Jesus’ gift is greater than the waters of ritual purity, it is greater than the gift of Jacob’s well.Keener, C. S

[7] The disciples had gone into a Samaritan town with apparently little effect on the populace; Jesus had ministered to one woman and brought the entire town to himself. Keener, C. S

[8] 注:耶稣并没有在撒马利亚人中行任何神迹,唯有耶稣把妇人的秘密倒出来。 因妇人的见证,加上耶稣的教导。后来许多人都相信了

[9] Following a pattern that we have seen in the conversations with the Jews after the Temple cleansing (2:20, where see note), with Nicodemus (3:4) and with the woman (v. 15), the disciples misunderstand Jesus by taking his words in a literal and material fashion.Morris, L..

[10] Jesus’ disciples think of literal food as quickly as the Samaritan woman thought of literal water.Carson, D. A.

[11] echoing Deuteronomy 8:3

[12] Obedience to the divine will is for him the major concern. Single-mindedly he presses on. Here he adds the thought of “finishing” his work (for “work” see Additional Note G, pp. 607–13). The verb is cognate with that used on the cross, when Jesus cried, “It is finished” (19:30).80 It reminds us of the awful cost of that work, and underlines the devotion implied in the expression. There is a sense in which each stage of his work may be regarded as perfect and complete. And there is a deeper sense in which nothing is complete without the cross.Morris, L.

[13] Many commentators think “four months, then the harvest” was probably a proverb otherwise unknown to us.415 The proverb might mean, “Labor hard in sowing now, and in four months we shall reap.”Keener, C. S.

[14] The harvest is ready. The wages are there. Let no one hang back. A harvest will not wait; unless it is reaped while it is ripe it will spoil and there will be no harvest. Morris, L.

[15] The ‘crop’ refers to the people who become followers of Jesus, in the first instance the Samaritans; ‘eternal life’ is that for which the crop is harvested. Carson, D. A.

But it is even more difficult to think of this incident as taking place four months before harvest. Jesus’ request for water points to a time of heat. Moreover, four months before harvest there would be plenty of surface water. A weary traveler would not depend on the charity of a chance acquaintance. A proverbial saying is rendered more likely in that the introduction “Do you not say” is not suited to a casual remark about the state of the crops.81 It is favored also by the metrical form of the sayingMorris, L.

The “fruit” here probably refers to new believers (12:24) rather than behavior (15:2–16); the common Johannine phrase “eternal life” probably alludes at least in part to Jesus’ promise to the Samaritan woman in 4:14 Keener, C. S..

[16] First, it calls to mind the eschatological promise of Amos 9:13: ‘ “The days are coming”, declares the LORD, “when the reaper will be overtaken by the ploughman and the planter by the one treading grapes.” ’ The colourful image betokens the blessing of miraculous and unceasing fertility and prosperity. Jesus may therefore be saying that the eschatological age has dawned in his ministry, in which sowing and reaping are coming together in the harvesting of the crop, the messianic community. Carson, D. A.

[17] Again, the meaning of “others” is not clear. It may be that the plural is not meant to be significant and that Jesus refers to himself only.90 If the saying refers only to the contemporary scene the “others” will be Jesus and the woman.91 J. A. T. Robinson has argued, convincingly to my mind, that the reference is primarily to the work of John the Baptist and his followers. Their work in this very area had prepared the way for Jesus and his band.92 Another possibility is that the labors of the prophets in days of old and of people like John the Baptist in more recent times are taken together as the basis for the work of the disciples.Morris, L.

[18] Commentators differ regarding the identity of the sowers and reapers here. Some have taken the sower to represent the patriarchs and prophets paving the way for the apostles (Irenaeus Haer. 4.23.1); others have suggested John the Baptist and his movement, who paved the way for Jesus’ mission in this region (3:23) and who did in fact “rejoice” (4:36) with Jesus (3:29);427 many today take the sower to represent Jesus, or the Father and Jesus (cf. Mark 4:3, 14).428 In the most immediate context, Jesus may refer to himself and the Samaritan woman (hence the plural ἄλλοι), who brought the town to him (4:29–30, 39).Keener, C. S..

[19] It was appropriate that the title ‘Saviour of the world’ should be applied to Jesus in the context of ministry to Samaritans, representing the first cross-cultural evangelism, undertaken by Jesus himself and issuing in a pattern to be followed by the church: ‘you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth’ (Acts 1:8)Carson, D. A.

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预言 恩赐 Gifts of Prophecy

预言 Gifts of Prophecy

预言的恩赐[1]

  • 预言的恩赐 } 三种不同立场。(1)终止论[2](2)没有终止但谨慎[3](3)继续延续
  • (1)终止论Complete Cessations. e.g. B B Warfield, Richard Gaffin, Palmer O Robertson, John Macarthur
  • (2)不是终止论(不过谨慎小心)Not Cessationist but Cautious  . John Calvin, Vern Poythress, John M Frame, Wayne Graduem, 唐崇荣、林慈信、李健安、陈佐人
  • (3)灵恩派Charismatics . Prophecy and Tongue is often a norm
  • 加尔文在注释书中,他哀叹惋惜在他年代的教会的恩赐不如哥林多教会[4]
  • 不同牧者在诠释 “预言恩赐”上有所不同。 当彼此尊重
  • 慎:今天有许多预言都是假冒的!但不可过度谨慎而否定圣经中所记载的预言恩赐
  • 14:14耶和华对我说:那些先知托我的名说假预言,我并没有打发他们,没有吩咐他们,也没有对他们说话;他们向你们预言的,乃是虚假的异象和占卜,并虚无的事,以及本心的诡诈。

终止论所使用的经文proof text used by Complete Cessations

林前 13:8  爱是永不止息。先知讲道prophecies之能终必归於无有;说方言之能终必停止;知识也终必归於无有。9  我们现在所知道的有限,先知所讲的也有限,10  等那完全[5] 的来到,这有限的必归於无有了。11  我作孩子的时候,话语像孩子,心思像孩子,意念像孩子,既成了人,就把孩子的事丢弃了。12  我们如今彷佛对著镜子观看,模糊不清(原文作如同猜谜);到那时就要面对面了。我如今所知道的有限,到那时就全知道,如同主知道我一样。1Co 13:8  Love never ends. As for prophecies, they will pass away; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will pass away. 9  For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10  but when the perfect comes, the partial will pass away. 11  When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I gave up childish ways. 12  For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known. 13  So now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; but the greatest of these is love.

  • 那完全的来到时(V10),到那时就要面对面了[6]V12)。
  • (V12)到那时就全知道[7],如同主知道我一样。
  • 问:若是完全指的是圣经,那么我们现在拥有圣经,我们是否已经完全知道?
  • 但主再来之时 (那完全的来到时),那时就全知道

约壹 3:2  亲爱的弟兄啊,我们现在是神的儿女,将来如何,还未显明;但我们知道,主若显现,我们必要像他、因为必得见他的真体。1Jn 3:2  Beloved, we are God’s children now, and what we will be has not yet appeared; but we know that when he appears we shall be like him, because we shall see him as he is. 1Jn 3:2   (KJV)  Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.

  • 这些恩赐是“末后的日子”the last days {基督再来之前} 所赐下 (徒2:17、珥2:28-32)
  • 恩赐终止是在完美的来到之日 (林前13:8-12)
新约圣经中的恩赐罗 12:6-8林前12:8-10林前12:28-30弗4:11彼前4:11
使徒 apostle (使徒与先知的职分结束了)   
预言 、先知讲道 prophecy
教导、知识、智慧的言语、教师、牧师(长老)teaching, wisdom, knowledge, teachers, pastors 
传福音的evangelists    
治理 leading   
行异能working of miracles   
医病gifts of healing   
执事(deacons)service、帮助人的helping、服事人的serves  
怜悯人的 acts of mercy    
施舍contributes    
信心 faith    
辨别诸灵distinguishing between spirits    
讲方言(别国语言)tongue (other languages)   
翻方言interpretation of tongues.   
:圣经正典已结束,使徒过世后。先知与使徒时代已经过去,所有使徒与先知的职份已终止。 注:一些神所赐的才干也当用来事奉神、造就教会。

图: Vern Poythress

Arguments below mainly from Wayne Grudem 下面的观点主要来 Wayne Grudem

  1. 旧约先知的权柄 The authority of the Old Testament Prophets.
  1. 旧约先知在宣告神的话时,拥有从神来的绝对权柄 Old Testament prophets were able to speak and write words that had absolute divine authority. They could say, “Thus says the Lord,” and the words that followed were the very words of God.
  • 出4:22  你要对法老说:『耶和华这样说:以色列是我的儿子,我的长子。Exo 4:22  Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD, Israel is my firstborn son,
  •  
  • 书24:2  约书亚对众民说:「耶和华以色列的神如此说:『古时你们的列祖,就是亚伯拉罕和拿鹤的父亲他拉,住在大河那边事奉别神,Jos 24:2  And Joshua said to all the people, “Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, ‘Long ago, your fathers lived beyond the Euphrates, Terah, the father of Abraham and of Nahor; and they served other gods.
  • 士6:8  耶和华就差遣先知到以色列人那里,对他们说:「耶和华以色列的神如此说:『我曾领你们从埃及上来,出了为奴之家,Jdg 6:8  the LORD sent a prophet to the people of Israel. And he said to them, “Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: I led you up from Egypt and brought you out of the house of bondage.
  • 耶2:2  「你去向耶路撒冷人的耳中喊叫说,耶和华如此说。。。Jer 2:2  “Go and proclaim in the hearing of Jerusalem, Thus says the LORD。。。
  • 1:9  於是耶和华伸手按我的口,对我说:我已将当说的话传给你Jer 1:9  Then the LORD put out his hand and touched my mouth. And the LORD said to me, “Behold, I have put my words in your mouth.
  • 旧约先知写下的圣经是上帝的话 The Old Testament prophets wrote their words as God’s words in Scripture for all time
  • 出34:27  耶和华吩咐摩西说:「你要将这些话写上,因为我是按这话与你和以色列人立约。」Exo 34:27  And the LORD said to Moses, “Write these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”
  • 赛 30:8  现今你去,在他们面前将这话刻在版上,写在书上,以便传留後世,直到永永远远Isa 30:8  And now, go, write it before them on a tablet and inscribe it in a book, that it may be for the time to come as a witness forever.
  • 耶 30:2  「耶和华以色列的神如此说:你将我对你说过的一切话都写在书上Jer 30:2  “Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: Write in a book all the words that I have spoken to you.
  • 哈2:2  他对我说:将这默示明明的写在版上,使读的人容易读。3  因为这默示有一定的日期,快要应验,并不虚谎。虽然迟延,还要等候;因为必然临到,不再迟延。Hab 2:2  And the LORD answered me: “Write the vision; make it plain on tablets, so he may run who reads it.3  For still the vision awaits its appointed time; it hastens to the end—it will not lie. If it seems slow, wait for it; it will surely come; it will not delay.
    • 当先知传神的话,不信或违背先知的话等同不信与违背神To disbelieve or disobey a prophet’s words was to disbelieve or disobey God.
  • 王上20:35  有先知的一个门徒奉耶和华的命对他的同伴说:「你打我吧!」那人不肯打他。36  他就对那人说:「你既不听从耶和华的话,你一离开我,必有狮子咬死你。」那人一离开他,果然遇见狮子,把他咬死了。1Ki 20:35  And a certain man of the sons of the prophets said to his fellow at the command of the LORD, “Strike me, please.” But the man refused to strike him. 36  Then he said to him, “Because you have not obeyed the voice of the LORD, behold, as soon as you have gone from me, a lion shall strike you down.” And as soon as he had departed from him, a lion met him and struck him down.
  • 王上13:11  有一个老先知住在伯特利,他儿子们来,将神人当日在伯特利所行的一切事和向王所说的话都告诉了父亲。12  父亲问他们说:「神人从那条路去了呢?」儿子们就告诉他;原来他们看见那从犹大来的神人所去的路。13  老先知就吩咐他儿子们说:「你们为我备驴。」他们备好了驴,他就骑上,14  去追赶神人,遇见他坐在橡树底下,就问他说:「你是从犹大来的神人不是?」他说:「是。」15  老先知对他说:「请你同我回家吃饭。16  神人说:「我不可同你回去进你的家,也不可在这里同你吃饭喝水;17  因为有耶和华的话嘱咐我说:『你在那里不可吃饭喝水,也不可从你去的原路回来。』」18  老先知对他说:「我也是先知,和你一样。有天使奉耶和华的命对我说:『你去把他带回你的家,叫他吃饭喝水。』」这都是老先知诓哄他。19  於是神人同老先知回去,在他家里吃饭喝水。20  二人坐席的时候,耶和华的话临到那带神人回来的先知,21  他就对那从犹大来的神人说:「耶和华如此说:你既违背耶和华的话,不遵守耶和华你神的命令,22  反倒回来,在耶和华禁止你吃饭喝水的地方吃了喝了,因此你的尸身不得入你列祖的坟墓。」23  吃喝完了,老先知为所带回来的先知备驴。24  他就去了,在路上有个狮子遇见他,将他咬死,尸身倒在路上,驴站在尸身旁边,狮子也站在尸身旁边。1Ki 13:21  And he cried to the man of God who came from Judah, “Thus says the LORD, ‘Because you have disobeyed the word of the LORD and have not kept the command that the LORD your God commanded you, 22  but have come back and have eaten bread and drunk water in the place of which he said to you, “Eat no bread and drink no water,” your body shall not come to the tomb of your fathers.'” 23  And after he had eaten bread and drunk, he saddled the donkey for the prophet whom he had brought back. 24  And as he went away a lion met him on the road and killed him. And his body was thrown in the road, and the donkey stood beside it; the lion also stood beside the body.
  • 新约的使徒们与旧约先知们同等 New Testament Counterparts to Old Testament Prophets Are New Testament Apostles not the prophets found in NT church.
  • 在新约中,那宣告神的话并写圣经的,主耶稣称他们为使徒。 In the New Testament there were also people who spoke and wrote God’s very words and had them recorded in Scripture, but we may be surprised to find that Jesus no longer calls them “prophets” but uses a new term, “apostles.”
  • 新约的使徒们对等旧约先知 (林前2:13、林后13:3、加1:8-911-12、帖前2:134:815、彼后3:2)书写新约圣经的是使徒们。The apostles are the New Testament counterpart to the Old Testament prophets (see 1 Cor. 2:13; 2 Cor. 13:3; Gal. 1:8–9; 11–12; 1 Thess. 2:13; 4:8, 15; 2 Peter 3:2). It is the apostles, not the prophets, who have authority to write the words of New Testament Scripture.
  • 林前 2:13  并且我们讲说这些事,不是用人智慧所指教的言语,乃是用圣灵所指教的言语,将属灵的话解释属灵的事1Co 2:13  And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual.
  • 林后13:3  你们既然寻求基督在我里面说话的凭据,我必不宽容。因为,基督在你们身上不是软弱的,在你们里面是有大能的。2Co 13:3  since you seek proof that Christ is speaking in me. He is not weak in dealing with you, but is powerful among you.
  • 加1:8  但无论是我们,是天上来的使者,若传福音给你们,与我们所传给你们的不同,他就应当被咒诅Gal 1:8  But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach to you a gospel contrary to the one we preached to you, let him be accursed. 9  As we have said before, so now I say again: If anyone is preaching to you a gospel contrary to the one you received, let him be accursed.
  • 加 1:11  弟兄们,我告诉你们,我素来所传的福音不是出於人的意思Gal 1:11  For I would have you know, brothers, that the gospel that was preached by me is not man’s gospel. 12  For I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ.
  • 帖前2:13  为此,我们也不住的感谢神,因你们听见我们所传神的道就领受了;不以为是人的道,乃以为是神的道。这道实在是神的,并且运行在你们信主的人心中。1Th 2:13  And we also thank God constantly for this, that when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men but as what it really is, the word of God, which is at work in you believers.
  • 彼后3:1  亲爱的弟兄啊,我现在写给你们的是第二封信。这两封都是提醒你们,激发你们诚实的心,2  叫你们记念圣先知预先所说的话和主救主的命令,就是使徒所传给你们的2Pe 3:1  This is now the second letter that I am writing to you, beloved. In both of them I am stirring up your sincere mind by way of reminder, :2  that you should remember the predictions of the holy prophets and the commandment of the Lord and Savior through your apostles,
  • 使徒们要强调他们的权柄时,并不是称自己是先知,而是强调他们是耶稣基督所立的使徒When the apostles want to establish their unique authority they never appeal to the title “prophet” but rather call themselves “apostles”
  • 所有写新约圣经的人,从来没有使用过先知的称号。All who have wrote the Holy Scriptures in the New Testament, has never appeal to the title of the prophets.
  • 新约主要是由使徒保罗、彼得、约翰、马太、路加福音使徒保罗(同事)写的(西4:14 ,2 提后 4:11)
  • 马可福音(使徒彼得和保罗的同工)  彼前 5:13, 提后4:11。雅各书和犹大书(耶稣的兄弟) 加1:19, 犹 1:1。  
  • 希伯来语的书信:作者未知。
  • 使徒约翰所写的《启示录》。NT is written mainly by Apostle Paul, Peter, John, Matthew, Gospel of Luke (Co-worker of Apostle Paul) Col 4:14, 2Ti 4:11, Gospel of Mark (Co-worker of Apostle Peter and Paul) 1Pe 5:13, 2Ti 4:11, Epistle of James and Jude (brothers of Jesus) Gal 1:19, Jud 1:1, Epistle of Hebrew : Author Unknown. Revelation written by Apostle John.
  • 所有使徒都以使徒的职分来表明他们的权柄,而不是以先知的职分。All the Apostles establish their authority by their office as an Apostle not as a prophet.
  • 罗1:1  耶稣基督的仆人保罗,奉召为使徒,特派传神的福音。Rom 1:1  Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,
  • 林前 1:1  奉神旨意,蒙召作耶稣基督使徒的保罗,同兄弟所提尼,1Co 1:1  Paul, called by the will of God to be an apostle of Christ Jesus, and our brother Sosthenes,
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  • 加1:1  作使徒的保罗(不是由於人,也不是藉著人,乃是藉著耶稣基督,与叫他从死里复活的父神)Gal 1:1  Paul, an apostle–not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead—
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  • 彼前 1:1  耶稣基督的使徒彼得写信给那分散在本都、加拉太、加帕多家、亚西亚、庇推尼寄居的,1Pe 1:1  Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who are elect exiles of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
  • (罗. 1:1; 林前 1:1; 9:1–2; 林后1:1; 11:12–13; 12:11–12; 加 1:1; 弗1:1; 彼前 1:1; 彼后1:1; 3:2; et al.).
  • Prophecy 预言:foretelling 预先告知forthtelling 训言
  • 新约的预言的定义:  不是向旧约先知一样宣告上帝的话,而是说出上帝感动使那人想到的事情(可能是非推理过程或也可能是透过推理过程)
  • Definition :not as “proclaiming a word from the Lord,” but rather as “telling something that God has spontaneously brought to mind.” (Non inferential process or inferential process)
  1. 新约教会的先知所预言的,不一定就是上帝的命令NT  “Prophets” Did Not Speak With Authority Equal to God’s command.  
  1. 新约“先知”的预言并不像旧约先知的旧约预言一样等于上帝的绝对命令。NT Prophecy is not equal to absolute command of God as like the OT prophecy by the OT prophets.
  • 徒21:4  找著了门徒,就在那里住了七天。他们被圣灵感动,对保罗说:「不要上耶路撒冷去。」5  过了这几天,我们就起身前行。他们众人同妻子儿女,送我们到城外,我们都跪在岸上祷告,彼此辞别。6  我们上了船,他们就回家去了。
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  • 保罗没有听从预言!即使门徒透过圣灵告诉他不要去耶路撒冷,但保罗仍继续前往。Paul disobeyed the prophecy! Paul continued his journey to Jerusalem even though the disciples through the Spirit tell him not to go.  Act 21:4  And having sought out the disciples, we stayed there for seven days. And through the Spirit they were telling Paul not to go on to Jerusalem. 5  When our days there were ended, we departed and went on our journey, …
  1. 在亚迦布提出预言之后,保罗不听弟兄姐妹的劝说。Paul disobeyed the people’s persuasion after Agabus prophesised.
  • 徒21:10  我们在那里多住了几天,有一个先知,名叫亚迦布,从犹太下来,11  到了我们这里,就拿保罗的腰带捆上自己的手脚,说:「圣灵说:犹太人在耶路撒冷,要如此捆绑这腰带的主人,把他交在外邦人手里。」12  我们和那本地的人听见这话,都苦劝保罗不要上耶路撒冷去。13  保罗说:「你们为什麽这样痛哭,使我心碎呢?我为主耶稣的名,不但被人捆绑,就是死在耶路撒冷也是愿意的。」14  保罗既不听劝,我们便住了口,只说:「愿主的旨意成就,」便了。Act 21:10  While we were staying for many days, a prophet named Agabus came down from Judea. 11  And coming to us, he took Paul’s belt and bound his own feet and hands and said, “Thus says the Holy Spirit, ‘This is how the Jews at Jerusalem will bind the man who owns this belt and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.'” 12  When we heard this, we and the people there urged him not to go up to Jerusalem. 13  Then Paul answered, “What are you doing, weeping and breaking my heart? For I am ready not only to be imprisoned but even to die in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.” 14  And since he would not be persuaded, we ceased and said, “Let the will of the Lord be done.”
  1. 新约预言并非像旧约一样无误。新约先知们的预言是信徒主观对上帝启示(启示,印象)的报道或解释。NT Prophecy is not inerrant of infallible like the OT. NT prophecy is a subjective reporting of God’s “revelation” (illumination, impression) by the believer.
  • 徒21:10  我们在那里多住了几天,有一个先知,名叫亚迦布,从犹太下来,11  到了我们这里,就拿保罗的腰带捆上自己的手脚,说:「圣灵说:犹太人在耶路撒冷,要如此捆绑这腰带的主人,把他交在外邦人手里。」12  我们和那本地的人听见这话,都苦劝保罗不要上耶路撒冷去。13  保罗说:「你们为什麽这样痛哭,使我心碎呢?我为主耶稣的名,不但被人捆绑,就是死在耶路撒冷也是愿意的。」14  保罗既不听劝,我们便住了口,只说:「愿主的旨意成就,」便了。Acts 21:10–11-14:   Agabus prophesied that the Jews at Jerusalem would bind Paul and “deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles,”
  • 事件的发生证明事实并非如此But the events turn out not to be exactly what happened.
  1. 不是犹太人,而是罗马人束缚他Not the Jews but the Romans who bind him.

徒21:33  於是千夫长上前拿住他,吩咐用两条铁链捆锁;又问他是什麽人,做的是什麽事。Act 21:33 Then the chief captain came near, and laid hold on him, and commanded him to be bound with two chains; and inquired who he was, and what he had done. Act 22:25  And when they had tied him up with the thongs, …

  • 犹太人其实希望杀死保罗,而不希望保罗被交给外邦人。The Jews do not want Paul to be given to the Gentiles. The Jews want him to die.

21:31  他们正想要杀他,有人报信给营里的千夫长说:「耶路撒冷合城都乱了。」Act 21:31  And as they were seeking to kill him, word came to the tribune of the cohort that all Jerusalem was in confusion.

  1. 旧约先知们预言时,不会在预言的细节上出差错The prediction was not far off, but it had inaccuracies in detail that would have called into question the validity of any Old Testament prophet.
  1.  亚迦布应该是受启示后,他用自己的理解来解释与报道神给他的心里的启示Agabus own interpretation of such a “vision” or “revelation” from the Holy Spirit would be that the Jews had bound Paul and handed him over to the Romans
  1. 新约先知们的预言,是用自己的话语来表达主给他们的启发This is exactly the kind of fallible prophecy that would fit the definition of New Testament congregational prophecy proposed above—reporting in one’s own words something that God has spontaneously brought to mind.
  1. 保罗教导我们必须实验所有的预言。提前5:21 但要凡事察验
    1. Not all “so called Prophecy” are real prophecies from the Lord. (1Thess 5:19-21). We must test them!
  1. .帖前5:19  不要消灭圣灵的感动;20  不要藐视先知的讲论。21  但要凡事察验,善美的要持守,1Th 5:19  Do not quench the Spirit. 20  Do not despise prophecies, 21  but test everything; hold fast what is good.
  • 如果预言在权威上等同神的道,那么保罗也不会告诉帖撒罗尼迦人不要轻视它并对其进行检验。If the Thessalonians had thought that prophecy equaled God’s Word in authority, he would never have had to tell the Thessalonians not to despise it and test it.

预言可以是信徒推论出来或按他们自己的直觉(非推论过程)Prophecy can be inferential or non inferential process (intuitive)

  • 推论:可以是根据某种情况按经文中的回忆和话语,来教导,鼓励或责备信徒。inferential : can be the remembrance and utterance of a scripture on a certain situation that help edify, encourage or rebuke the believers.
  • 非推论(直觉)。他们内心感到他们应该说或做某件事。Non-inferential (intuitive) . They sense that they should say or do a particular thing.
  1. 其它证据显示新约先知们的启示不是向旧约先知的启示一样无误误谬。Further evidences that shows that NT prophecies in the church are not like the apostolic prophecies or Old Testament prophecies  that are inerrant and infallible.   (1 Corin 14:29)
  1. 旧约先知具有绝对无误与误谬的权威。An Old Testament prophet has absolute infallible and inerrant authority.
  1. 使徒写下的圣经具有绝对的权威,有如旧约先知。Apostles’ writing has absolute authority like the Old Testament Prophets.

林前14:37  若有人以为自己是先知,或是属灵的,就该知道,我所写给你们的是主的命令。38  若有不知道的,就由他不知道吧!(注意:哥林多教会中的先知并没有使徒般的权柄)1 Corinthians 14:37-38. Then in verses 37 and 38, in he claims authority far greater than any prophet at Corinth: “If any one thinks that he is a prophet, or spiritual, he should acknowledge that what I am writing to you is a command of the Lord. If any one does not recognize this, he is not recognized.” (NOTE : a prophet in Corinthian does not command such an authority)

  1. 保罗命令教会需要仔细衡量教会先知所讲的内容。

林前14:29至於作先知讲道的,只好两个人或是三个人,其余的就当慎思明辨。 But in the NT prophecy, the church is instructed to weight carefully what is said. 1Co 14:29 Two or three prophets should speak, and the others should weigh carefully what is said.

  1. 使徒们准备他们离世后,并不是通过鼓励基督徒去询问先知们来解决他们的问题,而是通过教导圣经的牧师来指引。Apostolic Preparations for Their Absence: the problem of successors to the apostles is solved not by encouraging Christians to listen to the prophets but by pointing to the pastors teaching the Scriptures.
  • 提后 2:15  你当竭力在神面前得蒙喜悦,作无愧的工人,按著正意分解真理的道。2 Ti 2:15 Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truth.
  • 提后3:16  圣经都是神所默示的(或作:凡神所默示的圣经),於教训、督责、使人归正、教导人学义都是有益的,2Ti  3:16 All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness,17 so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.
  • 彼后 3:15  并且要以我主长久忍耐为得救的因由,就如我们所亲爱的兄弟保罗,照著所赐给他的智慧写了信给你们。16  他一切的信上也都是讲论这事。信中有些难明白的,那无学问、不坚固的人强解,如强解别的经书一样,就自取沉沦。2Pe 3:15 Bear in mind that our Lord’s patience means salvation, just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him. 16 He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.
  1. 在任何情况下,我们都不会从圣经中读,叫我们注意教会中的先知通过你们的先知服从主的话,的劝告等等。但圣经清楚指我们是要服从使徒们的教导与他们所记载下来的书信。 In no case do we read exhortations to “give heed to the prophets in your churches” or to “obey the words of the Lord through your prophets,” etc. But to obey the teachings and the writings of the Apostles.
  • 正常普遍接受主的指示是透过圣经的教导The norm of receiving instructions from the Lord is “teaching,”
  • 教会里的预言必须要服在圣经的权威之下。保罗没有吩咐提摩太牧师要在教会里使用预言,而是要在教会教导信徒圣经。prophecies in the church are always to be subject to the authoritative teaching of Scripture. Timothy was not told to prophesy Paul’s instructions in the church; he was to teach them.
  • 提前 4:11  这些事,你要吩咐人,也要教导人。1 Ti 4:11 Command and teach these things
  • 提前6:2  仆人有信道的主人,不可因为与他是弟兄就轻看他;更要加意服事他;因为得服事之益处的,是信道蒙爱的。你要以此教训人,劝勉人。1Ti 6:2 Those who have believing masters are not to show less respect for them because they are brothers. Instead, they are to serve them even better, because those who benefit from their service are believers, and dear to them. These are the things you are to teach and urge on them.
  • 教会需坚守圣经中的教义Church to hold on to the teachings of the Bible
    • 教会没有被要求来坚守 “预言”  ,而是坚守使徒们 “教给”他们的教义传统。

帖后2:15  所以,弟兄们,你们要站立得稳,凡所领受的教训,不拘是我们口传的,是信上写的,都要坚守。The Church were not told to hold firm to the traditions that were “prophesied” to them but to the traditions that they were “taught” by Paul  2Th 2:15 So then, brothers, stand firm and hold to the teachings[3] we passed on to you, whether by word of mouth or by letter.

  • 教会的牧师,长者和教师被指示要教上帝的道而不是来讲预言。Pastors and Elders and Teachers of the Church are instructed to teach the Word of God not to prophesy.
  • 在提摩太的领导职能中,他要注意自己和他的教训,但他从来没有被告知要注意他的预言。In Timothy’s leadership function, he was to take heed to himself and to his “teaching” but he is never told to take heed to his prophesying.
  • 提前4:16  你要谨慎自己和自己的教训,要在这些事上恒心;因为这样行,又能救自己,又能救听你的人。1Ti 4:16 Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers
  •  但长老(督工的)必须能教导神的道But Elders (Overseer) must be able to teach the Word of God.
  • 提前5:17  那善於管理教会的长老,当以为配受加倍的敬奉;那劳苦传道教导人的,更当如此。1Ti 5:17 The elders who direct the affairs of the church well are worthy of double honor, especially those whose work is preaching and teaching.
  • 提前3:2  作监督的,必须无可指责,只作一个妇人的丈夫,有节制,自守,端正,乐意接待远人,善於教导;1Ti 3:2 Now the overseer must be above reproach, the husband of but one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach,
  • 多1:9  坚守所教真实的道理,就能将纯正的教训劝化人,又能把争辩的人驳倒了Tit 1:9 He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it.
  • 书中没有提到任何从事预言工作的长老,也没有说长老必须是一个恰当的先知,或者长老应该坚持预言nothing is said about any elders whose work was prophesying, nor is it ever said that an elder has to be “an apt prophet” or that elders should be “holding firm to sound prophecies.”
  • 教导是对圣经的解释或应用“teaching” is an explanation or application of Scripture
  • 15:35  但保罗和巴拿巴仍住在安提阿,和许多别人一同教训人,传主的道Act 15:35 But Paul and Barnabas remained in Antioch, where they and many others taught and preached the word of the Lord.
  • 罗15:4  从前所写的圣经都是为教训我们写的,叫我们因圣经所生的忍耐和安慰可以得著盼望。Rom 15:4 For everything that was written in the past was written to teach us, so that through endurance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope.
  • 西3:16  当用各样的智慧,把基督的道理丰丰富富的存在心里,(或作:当把基督的道理丰丰富富的存在心里,以各样的智慧),用诗章、颂词、灵歌,彼此教导,互相劝戒,心被恩感,歌颂神。Col 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God.
  • 来 5:12  看你们学习的工夫,本该作师傅,谁知还得有人将神圣言小学的开端另教导你们,并且成了那必须吃奶,不能吃乾粮的人。Heb 5:12 In fact, though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you the elementary truths of God’s word all over again. You need milk, not solid food!
  • 教导就是重复和解释使徒的教导 Teaching is a repetition and explanation of apostolic instructions
  • 罗16:17  弟兄们,那些离间你们、叫你们跌倒、背乎所学之道的人,我劝你们要留意躲避他们。Rom 16:17 I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them.
  • 提后 2:2  你在许多见证人面前听见我所教训的,也要交托那忠心能教导别人的人。2Ti 2:2 And the things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men who will also be qualified to teach others.
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  • 提后3:10  但你已经服从了我的教训、品行、志向、信心、宽容、爱心、忍耐,2Ti 3:10 You, however, know all about my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, faith, patience, love, endurance,
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  • 雅各又警告,传道的人而不是先知,说传道的人要受更严厉的审判James warned that those who teach, not those who prophesy, will be judged with greater strictness

雅3:1  我的弟兄们,不要多人作师傅,因为晓得我们要受更重的判断。Jas 3:1 Not many of you should presume to be teachers, my brothers, because you know that we who teach will be judged more strictly.

  • 教会由长老(监督者)而不是先知来统治和领导Church ruled and lead by Elders (Overseer) not Prophets
  • 使徒保罗指出教会要由长老(监督者/主教)来管理Apostle Paul spelled out that the church are to be ruled by elders (overseer /bishop)  1 Timothy 3
  • 提前5:17  那善於管理教会的长老,当以为配受加倍的敬奉;那劳苦传道教导人的,更当如此。1Ti 5:17  Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in preaching and teaching.
  • 多1:5  我从前留你在革哩底,是要你将那没有办完的事都办整齐了,又照我所吩咐你的,在各城设立长老。Tit 1:5  This is why I left you in Crete, so that you might put what remained into order, and appoint elders in every town as I directed you—
  • 耶路撒冷议会,《使徒行传》第15章。使徒和长老,聚会商议这事。Jerusalem Council Acts 15. Act 15:6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question.
  • 过度依赖主观的印象作为指导的危险,必须明确防范。那些不断从神那里寻求主观信息来引导他们生活的人必须被提醒,他们需要更加重视圣经,并寻求圣经里所写的确实智慧。Danger of excessive reliance on subjective impressions for guidance, and that must be clearly guarded against. People who continually seek subjective “messages” from God to guide their lives must be cautioned that they need to place much more emphasis on Scripture and seeking God’s sure wisdom written there.
  • 许多灵恩派作家都会同意这种警告,如下引文所示:Many charismatic writers would agree with this caution, as the following quotations indicate:
  • Michael Harper (英国国教灵恩牧师):预言告诉别人他们该做什么,会引起极大的怀疑。Michael Harper (Anglican charismatic pastor):Prophecies which tell other people what they are to do—are to be regarded with great suspicion.
  • 唐纳德·吉(神召会):我们在属灵恩赐上的许多错误,都是在我们想要把特别的、不寻常的变成常理、习惯的时候发生的。让那些过度渴望通过恩赐获得“信息”的人,从过去几代人和同时代人的失败中吸取教训……圣经才应该是我们脚前的灯,是我们路上的光。Donald Gee (Assemblies of God): Many of our errors where spiritual gifts are concerned arise when we want the extraordinary and exceptional to be made the frequent and habitual. Let all who develop excessive desire for “messages” through the gifts take warning from the wreckage of past generations as well as of contemporaries….The Holy Scriptures are a lamp unto our feet and a light unto our path.
  • 唐纳德·布里奇(英国牧师):光照主义者总是发现“上帝让他”做事……光照主义者通常非常真诚,非常专注,并拥有服从上帝的命令,这让更谨慎的基督徒感到羞耻。然而,他们正在走一条危险的道路。他们的祖先以前曾践踏过这路,从长远来看,总是带来灾难性的后果。内在的情感和特殊的提示本质上是主观的。唯有圣经为我们提供了客观的指导。Donald Bridge (British charismatic pastor):The illuminist constantly finds that “God tells him” to do things….Illuminists are often very sincere, very dedicated, and possessed of a commitment to obey God that shames more cautious Christians. Nevertheless they are treading a dangerous path. Their ancestors have trodden it before, and always with disastrous results in the long run. Inner feelings and special promptings are by their very nature subjective. The Bible provides our objective guide.

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  • 新约教会的预言恩赐的目的Purpose of the gift of Prophecy to the New Testament Churches
  1. 预言包括一些预测Prophecies Includes some predictions
  2. 徒11:28  内中有一位,名叫亚迦布,站起来,藉著圣灵指明天下将有大饥荒(这事到革老丢年间果然有了。)Act 11:28 One of them, named Agabus, stood up and through the Spirit predicted that a severe famine would spread over the entire Roman world. (This happened during the reign of Claudius.)
  • 预言包括揭示人内心的秘密Prophecies Includes disclosure of secrets of the person heart
  • 林前 14:24  若都作先知讲道,偶然有不信的,或是不通方言的人进来,就被众人劝醒,被众人审明,25  他心里的隐情显露出来,就必将脸伏地,敬拜神,说:「神真是在你们中间了。」1Co 14:24 But if an unbeliever or someone who does not understand[8] comes in while everybody is prophesying, he will be convinced by all that he is a sinner and will be judged by all,25 and the secrets of his heart will be laid bare. So he will fall down and worship God, exclaiming, “God is really among you!”
  • 预言是对人说要建立,鼓励和安慰“prophesies speaks to men for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation
  • 林前14:3  但作先知讲道的,是对人说,要造就、安慰、劝勉人。1Co 14:3 But everyone who prophesies speaks to men for their strengthening, encouragement and comfort.

领受恩赐的目的,不是为要炫耀,乃是要在爱中造就教会。purpose of exercising gifts must not be for prideful use but for edifications of the church in love!

  •  信徒应用预言的恩赐Application for Believers on the Gifts of Prophecy
  • 旧约中常见的短语“耶和华如此说应该被避免(这句话在新约教会中没有任何先知说过)。The common Old Testament phrase, “Thus says the Lord” should be avoided (a phrase nowhere spoken in the New Testament by any prophets in New Testament churches).
  • 若有人真以为神感动什么事,该在会中报告时,应该说,主感动我使我想起……或 “在我看来,主好像正在指示我们……” 或者类似的表达方式。If someone really does think God is bringing something to mind which should be reported in the congregation, there is nothing wrong with saying, “I think the Lord is putting on my mind that…” or “It seems to me that the Lord is showing us…” or some similar expression.
  • 听一个人的预言是非常危险的(尤其是一个不属于你教会的陌生人)。如果事情涉及到一个人,上帝通常也会感动涉及那事的人,而不是透过另外一个人来告诉他而已。It is highly dangerous to listen to one person’s prophecy, (especially a stranger who is not from your church). If the matters involves a person, God will usually also impress on the person involved.  
  • 不是所有的基督徒都有这样的恩赐。预言不是自我幻想或自我催动或我个人的感觉。预言是来自神的礼物,圣灵突然给人的思想和心灵带来一些“启示”(光照或启发)。预言不是自己个人自我运用出来的! 一个人必须首先检查自己是否是他自己想象出来的。Not all Christians have the gift. Prophecy is not self illusion or self force or how I feel. Prophecy is a gift from God, where the Holy Spirit suddenly brings some “revelation” (illumination or prompting) to the person’s mind and heart.  Prophecy MUST NOT BE  self forced! The person must first examined himself whether is it from his own imagination.
  • 避免使用先知的头衔给那些有预言恩赐的人,因为这让人想起旧约中的许多先知,并误导许多人,认为他们的话是带有权威的,无误的,误谬的,是应该被遵守的。To avoid using the title “Prophets” for those who have the gift of prophecy, as it brings to mind to many of the Old Testament Prophets and it will mislead many thinking that their words are authoritative, infallible and inerrant and to be obeyed.
  • 那些已经从圣灵得到提示或光照的人,应该避免使用启示一词。因为这样会误导许多人,以为他们的话和圣经中记载的启示是一样的,并与圣经一样有权威。To avoid using the word “revelation” for those who have received prompting or illumination from the Holy Spirit. As it will mislead many to think that their words are of the same nature, same authority as the revelations recorded in the Bible.
  • 要知道它是不是预言,必须等待它实现才知。To see whether is it prophecy, you have to wait for it fulfilment.
  • 预言应该遵守圣经的指引(林前14:29-36)。
  • 预言当然应该根据圣经的教导来评估(林前14:29-38;帖5:19-21)。prophesy should be kept within scriptural guidelines (1 Cor. 14:29–36). Prophecies should certainly be evaluated according to the teachings of Scripture (1 Cor. 14:29–38; 1 Thess. 5:19–21)
  • 应该真诚地寻求教会的建立,而不是为了建立自己的威望 (林前14:12、26)should genuinely seek the edification of the church and not their own prestige (1 Cor. 14:12, 26)
  • 教会能鼓励预言的恩赐,这种恩赐在教会祷告会中时其实已经发挥作用。以祷告的形式(能称为“先知性的祷告”) 按主的感动来作出祷告。The church should recognize and encourage the gift of prophecy in ways it has already been functioning in the church—at church prayer meetings. express those promptings in the form of a prayer (what might be called a “prophetic prayer”) to the Lord.
  • 预言的恩赐在可能不是一种常态。the gift of prophecy may not be a norm today .

约翰加尔文是归正神学的先父,他在评论哥林多前书14:32时,他因教会缺乏属灵恩赐(尤其是预言)而感哀叹。加尔文羡慕先前赐予哥林多教会的诸多恩赐。加尔文在评论使徒教导哥林多教会命令先知们要彼此等待并轮流作预言时说:   【“从保罗的这段记载中,我们可以推断出教会在属灵的恩赐上是多么的显赫。从前有几班先知,所以必须痛下命令,使他们各其所位。我门看见他们有如此多而又多的不同恩赐。我们现在看到的却是我们的消瘦,不应该被称为贫穷; 但在这事上、我们受了理当的惩罚、是要惩戒我们对主的忘恩负义。但神的恩典并没因此而缺乏,祂的恩慈也并没有因此而减少。只是我们不配得祂的赏赐罢了,也无能领受祂的厚恩。虽然如此,我们拥的光和教义是足够的,只要我门在虔诚的栽培方上面没有缺乏,并由此结出的果子来”】 加尔文的释经书 (林前14:32)

John Calvin considered the forefather of Reformed Theology when commenting on 1 Corinthian Chpt 14:32 mourned over the lack of spiritual gifts (especially prophecy) in his church during his days and he admired the gifts bestowed to the Corinthian Church during the early days. For Calvin when commenting on Apostle instruction to the church for the prophets to wait and take their turn to prophesy says: 【From this passage of Paul’s writings, we may conjecture how very illustrious that Church was, in respect of an extraordinary abundance and variety of spiritual gifts. There were colleges of Prophets, so that pains had to be taken, that they might have their respective turns. There was so great a diversity of gifts, that there was a superabundance. We now see our leanness, nay, our poverty; but in this we have a just punishment, sent to requite our ingratitude. For neither are the riches of God exhausted, nor is his benignity lessened; but we are neither deserving of his bounty, nor capable of receiving his liberality. Still we have an ample sufficiency of light and doctrine, provided there were no deficiency in respect of the cultivation of piety, and the fruits that spring from it.】

Calvin, Commentaries on the Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians .  Calvin commentary on 1 Corinthians 14:32

  • 谨防假先知Beware of False Prophets

耶稣和使徒警告我们,教会中的假先知会把我们引入歧途,偏离福音或神的道。正如使徒约翰通过圣灵告诫我们不要相信每一个灵,而要试验那些灵。Jesus and the Apostles warned us of false prophets in the Church that will lead us astray from the gospel or the Word of God. As Apostle John thru the Holy Spirit warned us not to believe every spirit, but test the spirits.

  • 约壹4:1  亲爱的弟兄啊,一切的灵,你们不可都信,总要试验那些灵是出於神的不是,因为世上有许多假先知已经出来了。1Jn 4:1  Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world.
  • 太24:24  因为基督、先知将要起来,显大神迹、大奇事,倘若能行,连选民也就迷惑了。Mat 24:24  For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
  •  
  • 可13:22  因为基督、先知将要起来,显神迹奇事,倘若能行,就把选民迷惑了。Mar 13:22  For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect.
  • 有些假先知甚至会行假神迹奇事Some false prophets may even perform false signs and wonders
  • (引导人们远离圣经)帖后 2:9  这不法的人来,是照撒但的运动,行各样的异能、神迹,和一切虚假的奇事,10  并且在那沉沦的人身上行各样出於不义的诡诈;因他们不领受爱真理的心,使他们得救。11  故此,神就给他们一个生发错误的心,叫他们信从虚谎,12  使一切不信真理、倒喜爱不义的人都被定罪。13  主所爱的弟兄们哪,我们本该常为你们感谢神;因为他从起初拣选了你们,叫你们因信真道,又被圣灵感动,成为圣洁,能以得救。
  •  (lead people away from the Bible) 2Th 2:9-13  The coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan with all power and false signs and wonders, 10  and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11  Therefore God sends them a strong delusion, so that they may believe what is false, 12  in order that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 13  But we ought always to give thanks to God for you, brothers beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruits to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth.
  • (没有其他福音) 加1:7  那并不是福音,不过有些人搅扰你们,要把基督的福音更改了。8  但无论是我们,是天上来的使者,若传福音给你们,与我们所传给你们的不同,他就应当被咒诅。9  我们已经说了,现在又说,若有人传福音给你们,与你们所领受的不同,他就应当被咒诅。(no other gospel) Gal 1:7 which is really no gospel at all. Evidently some people are throwing you into confusion and are trying to pervert the gospel of Christ.8 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let him be eternally condemned!9 As we have already said, so now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let him be eternally condemned!
  1. 识别假先知Identification of False Prophets
  2. 耶稣和先知以及使徒教我们如何辨别假先知。Jesus and the Prophets and the Apostles has taught us how to identify the false prophets.
  • (带领你认识一个不同于圣经的神)

 申18:20  若有先知擅敢托我的名说我所未曾吩咐他说的话,或是奉别神的名说话,那先知就必治死。』21  你心里若说:『耶和华所未曾吩咐的话,我们怎能知道呢?』22  先知托耶和华的名说话,所说的若不成就,也无效验,这就是耶和华所未曾吩咐的,是那先知擅自说的,你不要怕他。 (lead you to a different God as taught in the Bible) Deu 18:20-22  But the prophet who presumes to speak a word in my name that I have not commanded him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’ 21  And if you say in your heart, ‘How may we know the word that the LORD has not spoken?’– 22  when a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the word does not come to pass or come true, that is a word that the LORD has not spoken; the prophet has spoken it presumptuously. You need not be afraid of him.

  • (看他们的生活,与他们所结的果)

太7:15  「你们要防备假先知。他们到你们这里来,外面披著羊皮,里面却是残暴的狼。16  凭著他们的果子,就可以认出他们来。荆棘上岂能摘葡萄呢?蒺藜里岂能摘无花果呢?17  这样,凡好树都结好果子,惟独坏树结坏果子。18  好树不能结坏果子;坏树不能结好果子。19  凡不结好果子的树就砍下来,丢在火里。20  所以,凭著他们的果子就可以认出他们来。」21  「凡称呼我『主啊,主啊』的人不能都进天国;惟独遵行我天父旨意的人才能进去。22  当那日必有许多人对我说:『主啊,主啊,我们不是奉你的名传道,奉你的名赶鬼,奉你的名行许多异能吗?』23  我就明明的告诉他们说:『我从来不认识你们,你们这些作恶的人,离开我去吧!』」(look into their lives and know their fruits) Mat 7:15-23  “Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves. 16  You will recognize them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thornbushes, or figs from thistles? 17  So, every healthy tree bears good fruit, but the diseased tree bears bad fruit. 18  A healthy tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a diseased tree bear good fruit. 19  Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 20  Thus you will recognize them by their fruits. 21  “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 22  On that day many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?’ 23  And then will I declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from me, you workers of lawlessness.’

  • (所有的信徒“先知”都不能否认圣经)

林前14:37  若有人以为自己是先知,或是属灵的,就该知道,我所写给你们的是主的命令。38  若有不知道的,就由他不知道吧!(All “prophets” cannot deny the Bible) 1Co 14:37 -38 If anyone thinks that he is a prophet, or spiritual, he should acknowledge that the things I am writing to you are a command of the Lord. 38  If anyone does not recognize this, he is not recognized.

  1. 14. 没有人能加添神的话语(圣经)No One is able to add to God’s Words (Bible).

早期的教会神父认识到圣经的正典已完毕,在使徒去世后,就没有人能补充圣经。引用申4:2 Deu_12:32; 箴30:6; 启22:18-19The canon of the Bible is closed and the early church Fathers recognized that after the Apostles have passed away, there are no one who can add into the scriptures. References Deu_4:2, Deu_12:32; Pro_30:6;Rev_22:18-19

  1. 对假先知的警告和审判Warning and Judgments for false prophets
  • (旧约时代假先知会被石头砸死)

申13:1「你们中间若有先知或是做梦的起来,向你显个神迹奇事,2  对你说:『我们去随从你素来所不认识的别神,事奉他吧。』他所显的神迹奇事虽有应验,3  你也不可听那先知或是那做梦之人的话;因为这是耶和华你们的神试验你们,要知道你们是尽心尽性爱耶和华你们的神不是。4  你们要顺从耶和华你们的神,敬畏他,谨守他的诫命,听从他的话,事奉他,专靠他。5  那先知或是那做梦的既用言语叛逆那领你们出埃及地、救赎你脱离为奴之家的耶和华你们的神,要勾引你离开耶和华你神所吩咐你行的道,你便要将他治死。这样,就把那恶从你们中间除掉。6  「你的同胞弟兄,或是你的儿女,或是你怀中的妻,或是如同你性命的朋友,若暗中引诱你,说:『我们不如去事奉你和你列祖素来所不认识的别神,7  是你四围列国的神。』无论是离你近,离你远,从地这边到地那边的神,8  你不可依从他,也不可听从他,眼不可顾惜他。你不可怜恤他,也不可遮庇他,9  总要杀他;你先下手,然後众民也下手,将他治死。10  要用石头打死他,因为他想要勾引你离开那领你出埃及地为奴之家的耶和华你的神。11  以色列众人都要听见害怕,就不敢在你们中间再行这样的恶了。(False Prophets are stoned to death during the OT) Deu 13:1 -11 “If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder, 2  and the sign or wonder that he tells you comes to pass, and if he says, ‘Let us go after other gods,’ which you have not known, ‘and let us serve them,’ 3  you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams. For the LORD your God is testing you, to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. 4  You shall walk after the LORD your God and fear him and keep his commandments and obey his voice, and you shall serve him and hold fast to him. 5  But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has taught rebellion against the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you out of the house of slavery, to make you leave the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from your midst. 6  “If your brother, the son of your mother, or your son or your daughter or the wife you embrace or your friend who is as your own soul entices you secretly, saying, ‘Let us go and serve other gods,’ which neither you nor your fathers have known, 7  some of the gods of the peoples who are around you, whether near you or far off from you, from the one end of the earth to the other, :8  you shall not yield to him or listen to him, nor shall your eye pity him, nor shall you spare him, nor shall you conceal him. 9  But you shall kill him. Your hand shall be first against him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. 10  You shall stone him to death with stones, because he sought to draw you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 11  And all Israel shall hear and fear and never again do any such wickedness as this among you.

  • (假先知不能进入神的国)
  • Eze 13:1  耶和华的话临到我说:2  「人子啊,你要说预言攻击以色列中说预言的先知,对那些本己心发预言的说:『你们当听耶和华的话。』」3  主耶和华如此说:「愚顽的先知有祸了,他们随从自己的心意,却一无所见。4  以色列啊,你的先知好像荒场中的狐狸,5  没有上去堵挡破口,也没有为以色列家重修墙垣,使他们当耶和华的日子在阵上站立得住。6  这些人所见的是虚假,是谎诈的占卜。他们说是耶和华说的,其实耶和华并没有差遣他们,他们倒使人指望那话必然立定。7  你们岂不是见了虚假的异象吗?岂不是说了谎诈的占卜吗?你们说,这是耶和华说的,其实我没有说。」8  所以主耶和华如此说:「因你们说的是虚假,见的是谎诈,我就与你们反对。这是主耶和华说的。9  我的手必攻击那见虚假异象、用谎诈占卜的先知,他们必不列在我百姓的会中,不录在以色列家的册上,也不进入以色列地;你们就知道我是主耶和华。(false prophets will not entered into God’s future kingdom)  Eze 13:1-9  The word of the LORD came to me: 2  “Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel, who are prophesying, and say to those who prophesy from their own hearts: ‘Hear the word of the LORD!’ 3  Thus says the Lord GOD, Woe to the foolish prophets who follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing! 4  Your prophets have been like jackals among ruins, O Israel. 5  You have not gone up into the breaches, or built up a wall for the house of Israel, that it might stand in battle in the day of the LORD. 6  They have seen false visions and lying divinations. They say, ‘Declares the LORD,’ when the LORD has not sent them, and yet they expect him to fulfill their word. 7  Have you not seen a false vision and uttered a lying divination, whenever you have said, ‘Declares the LORD,’ although I have not spoken?” 8  Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: “Because you have uttered falsehood and seen lying visions, therefore behold, I am against you, declares the Lord GOD. 9  My hand will be against the prophets who see false visions and who give lying divinations. They shall not be in the council of my people, nor be enrolled in the register of the house of Israel, nor shall they enter the land of Israel. And you shall know that I am the Lord GOD.
  1. 得预言恩赐之人并不意味得神的认可Prophesying does not mean God’s approval

我们要谨慎自己,因为赐给我们先知的礼物并不意味着我们是上帝喜悦的。We are to caution ourselves as the gift of prophesy given does not mean one is in favour of God.

  • (扫罗王想要捉拿撒母耳和大卫的时候,圣灵降在扫罗王身上,扫罗王终日说预言。)

撒上 19:20  扫罗打发人去捉拿大卫。去的人见有一班先知都受感说话,撒母耳站在其中监管他们;打发去的人也受神的灵感动说话。21  有人将这事告诉扫罗,他又打发人去,他们也受感说话。扫罗第三次打发人去,他们也受感说话。22  然後扫罗自己往拉玛去,到了西沽的大井,问人说:「撒母耳和大卫在那里呢?」有人说:「在拉玛的拿约。」23  他就往拉玛的拿约去。神的灵也感动他,一面走一面说话,直到拉玛的拿约。24  他就脱了衣服,在撒母耳面前受感说话,一昼一夜露体躺卧。因此有句俗语说:「扫罗也列在先知中吗?」(when King Saul  tried to arrest Samuel and David, the Holy Spirit descended upon King Saul and he prophesied whole day)  1Sa 19:20-24  Then Saul sent messengers to take David, and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as head over them, the Spirit of God came upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied. 21  When it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, and they also prophesied. And Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they also prophesied. 22  Then he himself went to Ramah and came to the great well that is in Secu. And he asked, “Where are Samuel and David?” And one said, “Behold, they are at Naioth in Ramah.” 23  And he went there to Naioth in Ramah. And the Spirit of God came upon him also, and as he went he prophesied until he came to Naioth in Ramah. 24  And he too stripped off his clothes, and he too prophesied before Samuel and lay naked all that day and all that night. Thus it is said, “Is Saul also among the prophets?”

  • (计划杀害耶稣的大祭司也预言了)

约 11:47  祭司长和法利赛人聚集公会,说:「这人行好些神迹,我们怎麽办呢?48  若这样由著他,人人都要信他,罗马人也要来夺我们的地土和我们的百姓。」49  内中有一个人,名叫该亚法,本年作大祭司,对他们说:「你们不知道什麽。50  独不想一个人替百姓死,免得通国灭亡,就是你们的益处。」51  他这话不是出於自己,是因他本年作大祭司,所以预言耶稣将要替这一国死;52  也不但替这一国死,并要将神四散的子民都聚集归一。53  从那日起,他们就商议要杀耶稣。 (the Chief Priest who planed to killed Jesus also prophesied) Joh 11:47-53 Then the chief priests and the Pharisees called a meeting of the Sanhedrin. 48 “What are we accomplishing?” they asked. “Here is this man performing many miraculous signs. If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and then the Romans will come and take away both our place[3] and our nation.” 49 Then one of them, named Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, spoke up, “You know nothing at all!50 You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish.” 51 He did not say this on his own, but as high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the Jewish nation,52 and not only for that nation but also for the scattered children of God, to bring them together and make them one.53 So from that day on they plotted to take his life.

  • (神的灵降在假先知巴兰身上的时候,他也预言了)

 (False Prophet Balaam also prophesied when the Spirit of God descended on him) 民24:2  巴兰举目,看见以色列人照著支派居住。神的灵就临到他身上,3  他便题起诗歌说:比珥的儿子巴兰说,眼目闭住(或作:睁开)的人说,4  得听神的言语,得见全能者的异象,眼目睁开而仆倒的人说: Num 24:2 When Balaam looked out and saw Israel encamped tribe by tribe, the Spirit of God came upon him 3 and he uttered his oracle: 4 the oracle of one who hears the words of God, who sees a vision from the Almighty.

书13:22  那时以色列人在所杀的人中,也用刀杀了比珥的儿子术士巴兰。Jos 13:22  Balaam also, the son of Beor, the one who practiced divination, was killed with the sword by the people of Israel among the rest of their slain.

启2:14  然而,有几件事我要责备你:因为在你那里有人服从了巴兰的教训;这巴兰曾教导巴勒将绊脚石放在以色列人面前,叫他们吃祭偶像之物,行奸淫的事。Rev 2:14  But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice sexual immorality.

彼后2:15  他们离弃正路,就走差了,随从比珥之子巴兰的路。巴兰就是那贪爱不义之工价的先知,16  他却为自己的过犯受了责备;那不能说话的驴以人言拦阻先知的狂妄。2Pe 2:15  Forsaking the right way, they have gone astray. They have followed the way of Balaam, the son of Beor, who loved gain from wrongdoing, 16  but was rebuked for his own transgression; a speechless donkey spoke with human voice and restrained the prophet’s madness.

我们如何检验和衡量所谓的预言”?How shall we test and weight the “so called prophecies”?

  • 当预言涉及两方面时,我们必须记住,神不会只对一方启示,而不对另一方也启示。例如:上帝把他对玛丽的计划启示给玛丽和约瑟。when the prophecy is pertaining to two parties , we must bear in mind that God will not reveal to only party without also revealing to the other party. E.g. God reveal to both Mary and Joseph of His plan on Mary.

如果主定意要成就那事,我们可以祈求印证记号。We may ask for signs if the Lord is determined to bring to pass of what is going to happen.

王下20:8  希西家问以赛亚说:「耶和华必医治我,到第三日,我能上耶和华的殿,有什麽兆头呢?」9  以赛亚说:「耶和华必成就他所说的。这是他给你的兆头:你要日影向前进十度呢?是要往後退十度呢?」10  希西家回答说:「日影向前进十度容易,我要日影往後退十度。」11  先知以赛亚求告耶和华,耶和华就使亚哈斯的日晷向前进的日影,往後退了十度。2Ki 20:8  And Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “What shall be the sign that the LORD will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of the LORD on the third day?” 9  And Isaiah said, “This shall be the sign to you from the LORD, that the LORD will do the thing that he has promised: shall the shadow go forward ten steps, or go back ten steps?” 10  And Hezekiah answered, “It is an easy thing for the shadow to lengthen ten steps. Rather let the shadow go back ten steps.” 11  And Isaiah the prophet called to the LORD, and he brought the shadow back ten steps, by which it had gone down on the steps of Ahaz.

  1. 我们可以真诚地渴望能够预言。We Should “Earnestly Desire” Prophecy.

保罗非常看重这恩赐,他对哥林多人说:“你们要立志爱,切慕属灵的恩赐,如预言”(林前十四:1)。论到属灵的恩赐,末了又说:“弟兄们,这样看来,我很愿意作先知讲道“预言”(林前十四:39)。”他说:“作先知讲道“预言”的,就是造就教会”(林前十四:4)。Paul valued this gift so highly that he told the Corinthians, “Make love your aim, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts especially that you may prophesy” (1 Cor. 14:1). Then at the end of his discussion of spiritual gifts he said again, “So, my brethren, earnestly desire to prophesy” (1 Cor. 14:39). And he said, “He who prophesies edifies the church” (1 Cor. 14:4).

  • 林前14:1  你们要追求爱,也要切慕属灵的恩赐,其中更要羡慕的,是作先知讲道(原文作:是说预言;下同)1Co 14:1 Follow the way of love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy.
  • 林前14:39  所以我弟兄们,你们要切慕作先知讲道,也不要禁止说方言。1Co 14:39 Therefore, my brothers, be eager to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues.
  • 林前 14:4  说方言的,是造就自己;作先知讲道的,乃是造就教会。1Co 14:4 He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the church.

[1] In these verses seven distinct gifts are mentioned. In 1 Corinthians 12:8–10 nine are specified, in 1 Corinthians 12:28, 29 also nine, in Ephesians 4:11 either four or five according as we regard “pastors and teachers” as one office or as two. Some of the gifts mentioned in these lists are not given here in Romans 12. In 1 Corinthians 12:28 the order of rank is expressly stated, at least in respect of the order, apostles, prophets, teachers. This same order for apostles and prophets appears in Ephesians 2:20; 3:5; 4:11. In the last cited passage the office of evangelist appears as third and is nowhere else specified in these lists. In all cases where order is intimated apostles are first and prophets second. Hence in this passage (Rom. 12:6–8), since the gift of prophecy is listed and the apostolic office is not, prophecy is mentioned first. The reasons why Paul does not refer to the apostolic office are apparent. There was no apostle at Rome (cf. 15:15–29, esp. vs. 20). He had alluded to his own apostolic commission in verse 3. It would scarcely be in accord with the pattern indicated in the New Testament for one apostle to give directions to another respecting the conduct of his office. The priority of the apostleship makes it thoroughly appropriate, on the other hand, for Paul to enjoin a prophet to exercise his gift “according to the proportion of faith”.Murray, J ……

As noted, not all the gifts referred to elsewhere are specified in this passage. It would not be proper to infer that only the gifts mentioned were present in the church at Rome. We may infer, however, that those dealt with and the corresponding directions were relevant and that the selection was sufficient to enforce concretely the regulative principles enjoined in verses 3–5.

Prophecy refers to the function of communicating revelations of truth from God. The prophet was an organ of revelation; he was God’s spokesman. His office was not restricted to prediction of the future although this was likewise his prerogative when God was pleased to unveil future events to him (cf. Acts 21:10, 11). The gift of prophecy of which Paul here speaks is obviously one exercised in the apostolic church as distinct from the Old Testament. In the Old Testament the prophets occupied a position of priority that is not accorded to those of the New Testament (cf. Numb. 12:6–8; Deut. 18:15–19; Acts 3:21–24; Heb. 1:1; 1 Pet. 1:10–12). But the important place occupied by the gift of prophecy in the apostolic church is indicated by the prophecy of Joel fulfilled at Pentecost (Joel 2:28; Acts 2:16, 17), by the fact that prophets are next in rank to apostles, and that the church is built upon “the foundation of the apostles and prophets” (Eph. 2:20). The apostles possessed the prophetic gift; they also were organs of revelation. But the apostles had other qualifications which accorded them preeminence and “prophets” were not apostles.

The regulative principle prescribed for a prophet was that he exercise his gift “according to the proportion of faith”.8 This has been interpreted, as a literal rendering might suggest, “according to the analogy of the faith”, faith being taken in the objective sense as the truth revealed and believed. This view would correspond to the expression, the analogy of Scripture, which means that Scripture is to be interpreted in accord with Scripture, that the infallible rule of the interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself.9 Much can be said in support of this interpretation.Murray, J.

[2] B B Warfield, Richard Gaffin, Palmer O Robertson, John Macarthur

[3] Not Cessationist but Cautious . John Calvin, John Murrary Vern Poythress, John M Frame, Wayne Graduem, 唐崇荣、林慈信、李健安、陈佐人

[4] John Calvin considered the forefather of Reformed Theology when commenting on 1 Corinthian Chpt 14:32 mourned over the lack of spiritual gifts (especially prophecy) in his church during his days and he admired the gifts bestowed to the Corinthian Church during the early days. For Calvin when commenting on Apostle instruction to the church for the prophets to wait and take their turn to prophesy says: “From this passage of Paul’s writings, we may conjecture how very illustrious that Church was, in respect of an extraordinary abundance and variety of spiritual gifts. There were colleges of Prophets, so that pains had to be taken, that they might have their respective turns. There was so great a diversity of gifts, that there was a superabundance. We now see our leanness, nay, our poverty; but in this we have a just punishment, sent to requite our ingratitude. For neither are the riches of God exhausted, nor is his benignity lessened; but we are neither deserving of his bounty, nor capable of receiving his liberality. Still we have an ample sufficiency of light and doctrine, provided there were no deficiency in respect of the cultivation of piety, and the fruits that spring from it.”

[5] Cessationist refers the “perfect” to the complete Bible.  The other view says that the coming of the perfect refers to the experience of perfection at the return of Christ.

[6]  In the Old Testament there are half a dozen references to seeing God “face to face”. Revelation 22:4 says that in heaven we shall see God’s face. 1 John 3:2 says that when Jesus appears we shall be like him for we shall see him as he is.

[7] the contrast between seeing fuzzily in an old mirror made out of metal and seeing face to face is not a contrast between first century spiritual knowledge and the knowledge we have from the New Testament today, but rather it’s a contrast between the imperfect knowledge we have today in this age and the awesome personal knowledge of God we will have when the Lord returns. When shall we see face to face? When shall we know fully, even as we are fully known? This will occur when we pass from this life and enter God’s glorious presence in Heaven.1 John 3:2 tells us, “Dear friends, now we are children of God, and what we will be has not yet been made known. But we know that when he appears, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.” It is when we are glorified in Heaven that we will truly have put childish ways behind us.it is impossible  to imagine Paul or any of us saying that after the New Testament was written, we now in this age understand fully, even as we have been fully understood. Conclusion: 1Co 13:8 -10 does not proof the Cessationist theory

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约翰福音:015 敬拜的真谛 约4章19至24

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敬拜的真谛 (约4章19至24)

  • Pic小孩子: Q1 敬拜。 Q2活水预表什么? (活水预表圣灵7:38-39) 活水赐生命
  • 4章19至24[1]
  • 背景:避开人群正午才出来打水(V6)以前有五个丈夫,现在有的不是丈夫(V16)
  • V19 妇人说:“先生,我看出你是先知[2]。20 我们的祖先在这山上敬拜上帝,而你们却说,敬拜的地方必须在耶路撒冷。”
  • 耶稣揭开她的秘密,她意识到耶稣是先知(申18:15)[3]
  • 她问耶稣,到底谁的敬拜才对?是基利心山上[4](申11:29),还是耶路撒冷?
  • Pic耶稣把敬拜的真谛 true meaning 给了撒马利亚妇人
  • 主没有把敬拜的真谛给耶路撒冷的精英分子(法利赛人)
  • 没有嫌弃她是撒马利亚人妇人,她以前有五个丈夫,加一个男人。
  • A.p.无论你这一生有多失败,只要你愿意寻求,主都愿意教你
  • e.g.我有许多以前不为人知的秘密与失败,但主没有嫌弃我。我开口求主,主赐给我
  • CALL只要你愿意,你们祈求,就给你们 (太7:7-11)
  • 真理不是局限在精英分子、或高智商。你们向神祈求好东西,主把真理赐给你。
  • .I)敬拜的真谛:敬拜神不受地界局限
  • 背景:所罗门时代,神的名在耶路撒冷的圣殿。(王上8:29、9:3)
  • V21耶稣说:“妇人,你应当信我,时候将到,那时你们敬拜父,不在这山[5],也不在耶路撒冷
  • Impl 不再需要为哪一个地方敬拜上帝而争吵了
  • Impl 基督徒不需要去耶路撒冷敬拜或朝圣。
  • Impl 今天主日,万国中神的子民都能敬拜(超越了地界)
  • 如今基督徒的耶路撒冷是属天,不是属地上的(加4:25-26、来12:22、启3:12、21:2、21:10)
  • .(II)敬拜的真谛:救恩是从犹太人耶稣基督出来的
  • V22 你们敬拜你们所不知道的,我们却敬拜我们所知道的[6],因为救恩是从犹太人出来的[7]
  • 注:耶稣没有讨好撒马利亚妇人。他说他们敬拜他们所不知道的。
  • 可怜:你们所拜的,你们不知道】You worship what you do not know
  • 问:为什么救恩是必须从犹太人出来的?
  • 因神与犹太人的始祖立约:与亚伯拉罕立、以撒、雅各立永约。(创22:18、26:4、35:11-12)
  • 这是为什么耶稣基督必须降世成为犹太人 (加3:16)
  • .III)敬拜的真谛:用心灵与诚实圣灵与真理来敬拜主
  • V23 然而时候将到[8],现在就是了,那用心灵[9]πνεῦμα按真理【诚实】ἀλήθεια敬拜父的,才是真正敬拜的人;因为父在寻找这样敬拜他的人。
  • πνεῦμα } 心灵 或 圣灵[10] 。 ἀλήθεια }诚实 或 真理
  • A】用心灵来敬拜  (绝大部分圣经译本翻译为心灵)
  • Pic Church Logo 心灵 spirit = 敬拜主是从真心发出,从爱神的心发出。
  • “心灵 一定是指被圣灵重生的心灵
  • O3:6 …从(圣)灵πνεῦμα生的就是灵πνεῦμα
  • Pic唯有圣灵重生“换心”的人,才能从心里爱神敬拜神(申30:6、结36:25-27、耶24:7、32:39)
  • Pic心灵敬拜 Vs 外在的宗教敬拜
  • 问:你为什么会来教会敬拜主?
  • 外在的宗教敬拜:为父母、宗教义务、内心深处并没有渴望敬拜神。
  • 心灵的敬拜: 爱主,信靠主,感恩主救赎我,内心渴望敬拜主。
  • 单单外在的宗教性质有一种特质。他们的心是远离神的。
  • 15:8 这百姓用嘴唇尊敬我,心却远离我[11]; (法利赛人的心远离神)
  • e.g.宗教敬拜,心却不属于主。这不是真正的敬拜,只是宗教活动!
  • 问:如果我不爱主,我的心不在主这边怎么办?
  • 教会或牧者没有办法做任何事为你换心。
  • Pic求主为我们换心唯有主能使我们爱祂(申30:6、结36:25-27、耶24:7、32:39、诗51:10)
  • CALL 内心呼求主为你换心。必须要以心灵才能敬拜神!
  • B】以圣灵来敬拜  (约翰福音中大约14处 πνεῦμα 都是指圣灵)
  • 3:3 …我们这以神的灵敬拜 …  (不是靠肉体割礼或守律法)
  • 圣灵是唯有真心相信耶稣之人才拥有的 (弗1:13-14)
  • 若想敬拜上帝,必须真心相信耶稣领受圣灵,心灵才能透过圣灵敬拜上帝
  • 应许:约4:10 耶稣回答说:「你若知道神的恩赐,和对你说『给我水喝』的是谁,你必早求他,他也必早给了你活水。」 (活水预表圣灵7:38-39)
  • C诚实敬拜神
  • 神是圣洁的,以诚实、真心的敬拜祂
  • 不可以有诡诈或狡诈的心。
  • D】按真理敬拜神
  • A)敬拜上帝必须按真理。耶稣是真理ἀλήθεια (约1:14、1:17、5:33、8:45、14:6、18:37)
  • 14:6耶稣说:我就是道路、真理、生命;若不藉著我,没有人能到父那里去。
  • e.g.错误:我敬拜神就行了,为什么要相信耶稣。
  • O 约壹 2:23  凡不认子的,就没有父;认子的,连父也有了。
  • B)敬拜神必须按神所启示的真理
  • Pic 32:4 亚伦从他们手里接过来,铸了一只牛犊,用雕刻的器具做成。他们就说:以色列啊,这是领你出埃及地的神(神本要除灭他们出32:11-14、摩西下山杀了三千人 出32:28)
  • 测验:请问哪两组人在敬拜上帝
  • (A1)不用心敬拜主 vs 心敬拜主  (A2)不信耶稣没有圣灵 vs 信耶稣拥有圣灵
  • (B1)拒绝真理(耶稣)vs接受真理(耶稣)(B2)不按圣经原则敬拜 vs  按圣经的原则敬拜
  • e.g.:法利赛人敬拜上帝 vs 耶稣的门徒敬拜上帝 有什么不同?
  • V23 …才是真正敬拜的人[12];因为父在寻找这样敬拜他的人。the Father is seeking such people
  • .IV)敬拜的真谛:上帝是无限的灵[13],超越时间空间与地界。
  • V24 上帝是灵[14],敬拜他的必须用心灵按真理【诚实】敬拜他。”
  • 无人能解释灵是什么。 因为神是灵,与所有被造万物的灵不一样。
  • analogy从人的角度进行思考来接近真理 :我们人是由身体与灵魂组成的
  • 但我们的灵魂、灵界的天使、魔鬼、都是被神造的。神却不是被造的,祂是创造主。
  • A.p.上帝是灵,神不受身体、地方的局限。
  • A.p.神是灵,神是无所不在(诗139:7-10)。

总结:

  • 以心灵、诚实敬拜。以圣灵、真理敬拜
  • 撒马利亚人妇人得到敬拜的真谛
  • 无论我们这一生有多么失败,只要我们愿意,我们开口向主求,主都会教我们 (太7:7-11)

紫qing


[1] Most of the Fourth Gospel presents Jesus as the ultimate fulfillment of Israel’s faith and worship, often in connection with Jewish festivals. Unlike the contexts of 2:13; 5:1, 9; 6:4; 7:2 (encompassing all of 7:1–10:21); 10:22, and the Passion Narrative, this chapter does not stand directly in the context of a Jewish festival; but it does present Jesus as greater than the biblical Jacob, and it does point to a greater, truer temple worship. Keener, C. S.

[2] Because the Samaritans accepted only the books of the Pentateuch as canonical (cf. notes on v. 4), they understood the words of Deuteronomy 34:10, ‘no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face’, to be absolute and in force until the coming of the prophet like Moses (Dt. 18:15–19; cf. notes on 1:21), the second Moses, the Taheb (as they called this promised ‘messianic’ figure). If there cannot be another prophet between the first Moses and the second Moses, then to call Jesus ‘prophet’ is virtually to call him ‘the prophet’. However, in view of v. 25 it is unlikely that the Samaritan woman is in v. 19 making so clear a confession. The word ‘prophet’ was used to refer to a wide range of ‘gifted’ people, and at this point may not, in the woman’s mind, denote a full-orbed Old Testament prophet, let alone a messianic figure.Carson, D. A..

Nevertheless, that the woman recognizes Jesus as a prophet could imply her openness to the possibility that he is the prophet. What sources from Samaritan tradition remain extant suggest that Samaritans denied prophets after Moses, until the final prophet like Moses would arise (Deut 18:18).278 Thus “the prophet” would be the Taheb, the restorer, a sort of messianic figure (see comment on 4:25, below). If John and his audience know this Samaritan teaching on prophets, calling Jesus “a prophet” may have been tantamount to calling him the supreme revealer after Moses; but in any case, her Christology rises to that level more clearly in 4:25–26, 29. Keener, C. S.

[3] 背景:撒马利亚人只认摩西五经。接受摩西和要取代摩西的先知。他们不承认圣经中其它的先知

[4] . For their part, the Samaritans recognized none of this. Moreover, their own textual traditions of Deuteronomy 12:5 read ‘to seek the place the LORD your God has chosen’. This prompted them to look to the Pentateuch itself to discover the place. They noted that Shechem, overlooked by Mount Gerizim, was the first place Abraham built an altar once he entered the promised land (Gn. 12:6–7). It was on Mount Gerizim that the blessings were to be shouted to the covenant community, once they had entered the promised land (Dt. 11:29–30; 27:2–7, 12; cf. Jos. 8:33) In the Samaritan Bible, both in Exodus 20:17 and in Deuteronomy 5:21, the ten commandments are followed by words very similar to those found in Deuteronomy 27:2–7, thus effectively tying the decalogue itself to Mount Gerizim. Granted these theological understandings, it is small wonder that the Samaritans built their temple there (cf. notes on v. 4) and insisted Mount Gerizim was the highest mountain in the world—even though Mount Ebal, just across the valley, was demonstrably higher.2 Even after their temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus, the Samaritans continued to perform their sacrifices and other rites on this mountain. These were the competing religious claims that the Samaritan woman was inviting Jesus to address。Carson, D. A. .

[5] At the division of the kingdom into Israel (north) and Judah (south), Jeroboam established shrines in the north, at Bethel and Dan, to discourage his subjects from traveling to Jerusalem for the three annual feasts (1 Kin. 12:25–33). After the northern kingdom fell to Assyria (721 B.C.), the split widened between the Jews in Jerusalem and the Israelites living in Samaria, who built a temple on Mount Gerizim, which was destroyed around 130 B.C. Samaritans have continued to worship on Mount Gerizim even into modern times.The Reformation Study Bible.

[6] whatever else was wrong with Jewish worship, at least it could be said that the object of their worship was known to them. The Jews stand within the stream of God’s saving revelation; they know the one they worship, for salvation (cf. notes on 3:17) is from the Jews.。。。The ultimate authority for both Jews and Samaritans lay in their respective Bibles; in this debate at least, Jesus comes down decisively on the side of the Jews. There are immediate implications for the resolution of the conflicting claims of Jerusalem and Mount Gerizim, but Jesus does not press the point. Carson, D. A. .

[7] That is to say, the messianic salvation comes from this nation (“from” them, “not in them, or by them” [Marsh, p. 217]). The Messiah is a Jew。Morris, L.

[8] Rather, the point is that with the coming of the ‘hour’ the distinction between true worshippers and all others turns on factors that make the ancient dispute between the conflicting claims of the Jerusalem temple and Mount Gerizim obsolete. Under the eschatological conditions of the dawning hour, the true worshippers cannot be identified by their attachment to a particular shrine, but by their worship of the Father in spirit and truth. Carson, D. A. (1991).

[9] John here refers to worship empowered by the Spirit. Some argue that the passage refers to worship with the human spirit,336 that is, passionate worship with one’s whole heart. But more natural expressions for this existed in the LXX: one could render thanks ἑν ὅλῃ καρδίᾳ μου;337 likewise, the soul could praise God,338 and “heart and soul” are the usual expressions applied to passion for God.339 Moreover, the human spirit is hardly John’s usual sense of “Spirit”; apart from references to Jesus’ personal spirit (11:33; 13:21; 19:30), the only other probable exception, 3:6, includes a reference to God’s Spirit, and fourteen undisputed references plainly refer to God’s Spirit. Finally, the Spirit becomes the agent of God’s indwelling the believer, for John’s (e.g., 14:23 in context) as for Pauline circles (e.g., Rom 8:9; Eph 3:16)—in effect mediating the presence of God more effectively than the temple had (cf. 1 Cor 3:16; 6:19; Eph 2:18–22).340 The believer’s (and the believing community’s) experience with God’s Spirit can replace the magnificent temple destroyed in 70 C.E. Keener, C. S.

[10] John here refers to worship empowered by the Spirit. Some argue that the passage refers to worship with the human spirit,336 that is, passionate worship with one’s whole heart. But more natural expressions for this existed in the LXX: one could render thanks ἑν ὅλῃ καρδίᾳ μου;337 likewise, the soul could praise God,338 and “heart and soul” are the usual expressions applied to passion for God.339 Moreover, the human spirit is hardly John’s usual sense of “Spirit”; apart from references to Jesus’ personal spirit (11:33; 13:21; 19:30), the only other probable exception, 3:6, includes a reference to God’s Spirit, and fourteen undisputed references plainly refer to God’s Spirit. Finally, the Spirit becomes the agent of God’s indwelling the believer, for John’s (e.g., 14:23 in context) as for Pauline circles (e.g., Rom 8:9; Eph 3:16)—in effect mediating the presence of God more effectively than the temple had (cf. 1 Cor 3:16; 6:19; Eph 2:18–22).340 The believer’s (and the believing community’s) experience with God’s Spirit can replace the magnificent temple destroyed in 70 c.e. Keener, C. S

[11] 法利赛人的心远离神,把人的吩咐取代神的命令 (太15:8-9)

[12] the true worshippers cannot be identified by their attachment to a particular shrine, but by their worship of the Father in spirit and truth.Carson, D. A.

[13] In the same way, ‘God is spirit’ means that God is invisible, divine as opposed to human (cf. 3:6), life-giving and unknowable to human beings unless he chooses to reveal himself (cf. 1:18).Carson, D. A.

[14] and since God is spiritual but not physical, those who relate to him must do so through the gift of his Spirit (cf. 1 Cor 2:11–12). Merely fleshly worship (cf. Phil 3:3) is inadequate,Keener, C. S.

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伦理学 参考书

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Uncategorized 约翰福音

约翰福音:012 神爱世人 约3章16至21

👉 约翰福音 mp3录音

012 神爱世人 约3章16至21

      • Pic 小孩子:小心你被罪透过游戏机与电脑控制。
      • Pic大人回家:孩子还小时,你用时间与孩子聊天与玩。还是你看手机?
      • 3章16至21
      • 问:那一句经文是你最经常使用的?
      • e.g.最近我去医院探望一位40岁末期癌症弟兄。我问他预备见主了吗?他点头,心平静安稳。
      • 3:16“上帝爱世人[1],甚至把他的独生子赐给他们,叫一切信他的,不至灭亡,反得永生[2]
      • .(I) 上帝是世界的主
      • 上帝创造了这世界与人类 (创1:1-2)
      • 圣经宣告:世人没有借口说他们不知道有一位创造者 (罗1:19-20)
      • Pic藉著所造之物就可以晓得,叫人无可推诿
      • Pic 苹果大厦 e.g.没有建筑师、没有建筑工人
      • Pic 地球的绘画 e.g. 没有画家
      • e.g.一位小孩相信没有上帝,世界是从无变有
      • e.g.无自己生万有是不可能的。如果无能够生万有,那么它根本就不是无!
      • Pic问:请问哪一个是需要更大的信心来相信?(世界是从无变为有)vs (世界有一位创造者)

      • Pic问:如果有一位神,为什么世界有那么多的苦难?
      • 世人犯了罪所以落入苦难,大地受了诅咒(创3:17)
      • 灾难是对世人的警告(启9:20、16:1)
      • 人因悖逆上帝所以受苦,但人还要怪上帝。
      • 人犯罪悖逆上帝,所以人会灭亡(罗5:12、创3:19)
      • Pic 9:27 按著定命,人人都有一死 …
      • “第二次的死” = 地狱的刑罚 (太18:9、25:41、路12:5、启21:8*、22:13-15)
      • Pic 9:27 …死後且有审判。

      • .(II)上帝爱世人
      • 3:16“上帝爱世人,甚至把他的独生子赐给他们
      • 神是公义的。罪必须受审判。神也同样是爱。
      • 上帝爱世人:所以赐下祂的独生子(主耶稣),为我们的罪定死在十字架上
      • Pic 耶稣代替我们受死。以他的血与死 来赎我们的罪 (罗3:25、5:9、启1:5、5:9)
      • Pic美国内战结束后不久,有人看到一个穿农家衣服的男人跪在墓碑前。一个旁观者走过来问:“那是你儿子的坟墓吗?”农夫回答:“不是。我有七个孩子,他们都还小。内战时我被征召入伍。但在我要离开的那天早上,这个人,我邻居的大儿子,过来,提出代替我参加战争。观察者问:“你在他的坟墓上写的是什么?”农夫回答说:“我在写:‘他为我而死。’

      • .(III) 上帝赐救恩:信耶稣的不至灭亡,反得永生。
      • 3:16,叫一切信他的,不至灭亡,反得永生。
      • 信耶稣的人神应许“第二次的死”不会伤害他 (启20:6、21:8)
      • 信主的人死后,灵魂会到天上,将来耶稣再回来的时候,信徒的身体要复活
      • 问:剩下骨灰还能复活吗?没有骨灰能吗? 能!因神能造新的身体!
      • V17 因为上帝差他的儿子到世上来,不是要定世人的罪[3],而是要使世人借着他得救。
      • 其实世人的罪早已经定了,耶稣来是为要拯救世人。

      • .(IV) 信耶稣就不被定罪
      • V18 信他的,不被定罪;不信的,罪已经定了,因为他不信上帝独生子的名。
      • 上帝应许不再被定罪 (罗8:1)。
      • 赦罪e.g.妓女、杀人犯、堕胎、淫乱、同性恋、强盗、醉酒吸毒(太21:32、林前6:9-11 注意V11)
      • 独生子的名 “耶稣基督”(徒4:12)
      • e.g.今天的文化:反对绝对。讨厌这种绝对 hate absolute
      • e.g.一加一等于二 
      • e.g.空气对你说你不呼吸空气一定死。 (真理一定是绝对的)
      • e.g.一些人认为上帝是霸道的。所以有些人情愿与上帝做对
      • 神不是霸道的!祂为我们钉死在十字架上

      • .(V) 人被定罪是因为行为邪恶并且拒绝救恩
      • V19 光[4]来到世上,世人因为自己的行为邪恶,不爱光倒爱黑暗,定他们罪的原因,就在这里。
      • 耶稣称自己是光(9:15、12:35、12:46)vs 世人都在黑暗(1:5、3:19)
      • 人被定罪有两个原因。(1)因为行为是邪恶的 (2)因为拒绝耶稣“光”

      • .(VI)世人讨厌耶稣、害怕耶稣
      • V20 凡作恶的都恨光,不来接近光,免得他的恶行暴露出来【受责备】。
      • Pic eg犹太宗教领袖讨厌耶稣[5]。在耶稣来之前他们是众人道德典范。可是后来却被耶稣指有罪
      • Pic keep God out 人讨厌耶稣、害怕耶稣的。
      • 问:你讨厌耶稣吗?你为什么讨厌祂? 只因祂说你是罪人吗?
      • e.g.耶稣对一群起初信[6]祂的犹太人说他们有罪,后来他们就离开耶稣。(8:31-59)
      • e.g.在主还未重生我之前,讨厌去教会,最讨厌听圣经说我是罪人
      • e.g.以前去教会是很折磨人的一件事
      • e.g.听道时,头脑晕晕的。头脑空空。

      • 问:如果我们原是属于黑暗,为何我们后来会接受光呢?
      • .(VII) 上帝使一些原本在黑暗里的人行真理接近光
      • V21 凡行真理的,就来接近光,好显明他所作的都是靠着上帝而作的。”
      • 表达的概念与 上文讲述的重生一样(3:3、3:5)
      • 行真理的人 = 接近光的人 (接受耶稣的人)
      • 能够接近光,都是靠着上帝而作的 (约15:19、弗2:1-5)

      • 上帝的爱是伟大的
      • Pic e.g.假设你请朋友到你家住,后来他把自己当成主人,无视你的存在。你不会把他赶走吗?
      • 人却藐视上帝的存在
      • Pic e.g.有谁养了一只狗,被狗咬断了一只手之后,还愿意继续养它?
      • 人是忘恩负义,神却供养我们
      • Pic e.g.有谁会为了仇人牺牲自己的儿子?
      • 神为了拯救世人,牺牲了祂的独生子

      • Pic神爱祂的儿女:我们更是感受神的爱,因祂不断的赦免、饶恕、帮助我们
      • 神也并没有按我们的过犯代我们(诗25:7、51:1、103:12)
      • e.g.一位很少爱神的基督徒临死前很害怕神不爱他。他的朋友回答:
      • Pic一位很少爱神的基督徒临死前很害怕神不爱他。他的朋友回答:“当我从这儿回家的时候,我希望拥抱我的孩子,看她那甜蜜的眼睛,听她那可爱的声音,尽管我已经很累了,我柔情爱着这孩子。但她不是很爱我。即使我心碎了,也不会打扰她的睡眠。即使我的身体被病痛折磨,也不会打扰她玩耍。如果我死了,过几天她就忘记我。除此之外,她从来没有给我带来过一分钱,我却为她付出许多金钱。我并不富有,但世界上没有足够的钱可以买我的孩子。我不会等到孩子爱我,我才爱她。我也不祈求等待孩子为我做一些值得我爱的事才开始爱她。这个实例使病人的眼泪流了下来。“啊,我明白了,”他大声说,“我所思想的不应该是我对上帝的爱,而是上帝对我的爱。我以前从来没太爱神,但如今我爱祂!“from —Gospel Herald
      • 神的爱比人的父亲更大 greater love than human fathers
      • 许多基督徒对神的爱很少,但神依然爱我们。God love us despite our small love for him


[1] . All believers have been chosen out of the world (15:19); they are not something other than ‘world’ when the gospel first comes to them. They would not have become true disciples apart from the love of God for the world. Carson, D. A.

he pronounces terrifying condemnation on the grounds of the world’s sin, while still loving the world so much that the gift he gave to the world, the gift of his Son, remains the world’s only hope.This dual stance of God is a commonplace of biblical theology. The holy God finds wicked actions to be detestable things (Ezk. 18:10–13), but that does not prevent him from crying out, ‘Do I take any pleasure in the death of the wicked? declares the Sovereign LORD. Rather, am I not pleased when they turn from their ways and live?’ (Ezk. 18:23). The same dual track is found in God’s stance to other nations. Moab, for instance, is so wicked that God’s decree has gone forth: ‘Make her drunk, for she has defied the LORD. Let Moab wallow in her vomit; let her be an object of ridicule.… In Moab I will put an end to those who make offerings on the high places and burn incense to their gods.… I have broken Moab like a jar that no-one wants.… Moab will be destroyed as a nation because she defied the LORD’ (Jer. 48:26, 35, 38, 42). At the same time, the God who takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked declares, ‘Therefore I wail over Moab, for all Moab I cry out.… So my heart laments for Moab like a flute; it laments like a flute for the men of Kir Hareseth’ (Je. 48:31, 36).Carson, D. A.

[2] Modern readers of 3:15–16 who assume that it rewards passive faith with eternal life, apart from perseverance, read these verses in accordance with a very modern theological understanding that is utterly foreign to their Johannine context. Keener, C. S.

[3] That Jesus did not come to condemn does not mean that the world will not be condemned; in John’s theology, the world is condemned already and only those who respond to God’s gift in the cross will be saved.Keener, C. S.

[4] But in this Gospel Christ is the light (1:9; 8:12; 9:5), and John is here speaking of Christ’s coming to this world. The supreme condemnation of the people of his day, John says, was that when Christ, the Light of the world, came to them, they rejected him. They loved the darkness.Morris, L.

[5] From the account of the reaction of the rulers of the Jewish people to Jesus during his lifetime, we can understand how this works. These men were the acknowledged high-achievers of the people before Christ’s coming. The law had been given. They were the ones who supposedly had kept it. But when Jesus Christ came, he was so much better than they were that next to him their goodness looked tarnished, like Christmas tinsel does in February. So they hated him. The result was that they preferred to have him killed, removed from sight, rather than allow him to expose the corruption that was in their own hearts and cure them of it.Boice, J. M. (2005).

[6] 他们起初信耶稣,可能是因为他们看见耶稣行神迹。但他们不接受耶稣的话。

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启示录证道 (录像)视频

因为一些局限,我们无法上载启示录高清录像。 高清录像可以在 youtube 观看。恳请弟兄姐妹为永约教会与李健发牧师代祷,主里感激不尽。 注:网页中的任何内容,任何基督徒都能随意下载使用。


01 启示录介绍 第一部分

01 启示录

介绍 (一)


02 启示录介绍 第二部分

02 启示录

介绍(二)


03 启示录介绍 第三部分

03 启示录 介绍(三)


04 战胜苦难 启1章1-9

04 启示录1:1-9 战胜苦难


05 不要惧怕 启1章9-20


06 如何寻回起初的爱2章1至7


07 如何至死忠心?启2章8至11


08 淫乱与偶像敬拜 启2章12-17


09 推雅推拉教会:错误的宽容 启2章18至29


010 行为衰微要死的教会 启3章1至6


011主会保守坚守主道的门徒 启3章7至13


012 凡我所疼爱的我就责备管教他 3章14至22


013 患难中看见天上的敬拜 启示录 4章1至11


014 被杀的羔羊配得敬拜 启示录5章1-14


015 揭开七印的奥秘(1-4印)启6章1-8


016 揭开第五印 启6章9-11


017 揭开第六印 启示录6章12-17节


018 众仆人受印 启示录7章1-8节

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General Uncategorized 罗马书

087 罗马书16章17至27 保罗最后的嘱咐与颂赞

👉 罗马书证道录音mp3                      

087 罗马书16章17至27 保罗最后的嘱咐与颂赞

    • 上文:V1-16 列出约三十位基督徒的姓名,保罗向他们问安。
    • Pic书信来到尾声。保罗把他害怕发生在罗马教会的事,预先警戒他们
    • Pic vaccine 保罗要为他们打预防针保护他们。
    • 保罗的教会经历异端兴起(加1:6、2:4 、林后11:13-15、提3:5-7)
    • 主耶稣警告门徒们假先知一定会来 (太7:15、24:11、24、可13:22)
    • 撒旦用来摧毁教会,最可怕可能不是逼迫、而可能是来自内部
    • 16:17 弟兄们,我劝你们要提防那些离间你们、绊倒你们、使你们违反你们所学的教义的人背乎所学之道的人】。你们也要避开他们[1]18  因为这样的人不服事我们的主基督,只服事自己的肚腹,用花言巧语欺骗[2]老实人的心[3]

假教师的特征:

    • V17 离间你们
    • e.g.信不同的主,导致分离。
    • e.g.极端、异端、邪教。往往会影响人离开自己的家庭、教会
    • e.g.他们会说,你千万不要告诉你的牧师。
    • V17 绊倒你们、使你们违反你们所学的教义的人【背乎所学之道的人】。
    • 不同的福音,不一样的教义
    • e.g.违背教会历代信经(使徒信经、尼西亚信经、加克敦信经) 等等

假教师的能力:

    • V18用花言巧语
    • 极佳的口才
    • 讲你心里想听的话
    • V18欺骗老实人的心。
    • 一些老实的弟兄姐妹,对这些人没有防范之心
    • e.g.最近东方闪电在新马一代非常猖獗 (假冒自己是卫理公会、浸信会)
    • Pic假教师乔装自己属灵,敬畏主、爱主
    • e.g.一间教会的领袖找我
    • 需小心教会兴起假教师(帖后2:9-12),保罗称他们为撒但的仆役  
    • 林后11:13 这样的人是假使徒,是诡诈的工人,装成基督的使徒。14 这并不希奇,因为撒但自己也装作光明的天使,15 所以,撒但的仆役装成公义的仆役,也不必大惊小怪。他们的结局必按他们所作的而定。

注:装成公义的仆役

    • V18 因为这样的人不服事我们的主基督,只服事自己的肚腹 (彼后2:3、多1:11、犹1:11)
    • 因为他根本不是服事主,他服事的是自己,为自己的肚腹谋利益
    • V19你们的顺服已经名闻各处,所以我为你们高兴。我愿你们在善事上有智慧,在恶事上毫不沾染
    • 问:保罗这位牧者,高兴的是什么?希望的是什么?
    • 保罗感到高兴:他们顺服真理、顺服主 (1:8)
    • 保罗希望他们:不沾染恶事(V17假教师),在善事上有智慧
    • a.p.希望我们也能有智慧多多行善
    • V20 赐平安的上帝[4]快要把撒但践踏在你们脚下[5]。愿我们主耶稣的恩惠与你们同在。
    • 保罗倒出教会(我们)最后一定得胜。基督再来之时,上帝会把撒但践踏在我们脚下
    • 3:15女人的後裔要伤你的头 (保罗引用了 创3:15)
    • 这位後裔是预表耶稣基督、但其实也预表所有在耶稣基督里的人
    • Pic One body 属于基督的人,被视为是基督的身体,是一体。(罗12:5)
    • 许多赐予基督的应许,在基督里的人也承受应许(林后1:20、加3:29、弗3:6)
    • e.g.基督得胜,我们也得胜e.g.基督复活,我们也要复活e.g.基督得荣耀,我们将来也得荣耀
    • Pic应许:上帝会把撒但践踏在我们脚下。

    • V21 我的同工提摩太和我的亲族路求、耶逊和所西巴德[6]都问候你们。22(我──代笔写这封信的德图【德丢】──也在主里问候你们。)23 那接待我也接待全教会的该犹,问候你们。本城的司库【管银库】以拉都和夸图弟兄问候你们。24 (有些抄本MSS [7]有第24节:愿我们主耶稣基督的恩惠,与你们众人同在。阿们。
    • 保在哥林多[8]重要的同工们问候罗马教会
    • 以拉都一位是【管银库】。德图【德丢】代笔[9]写这封信。
    • 看见教会与教会之间彼此关爱之心
    • V25[10] 上帝能依照我所传的[11]福音和耶稣基督所传的信息,照着他奥秘的启示,坚定你们。26 这奥秘自古以来秘而不宣【永古隐藏不言】,但现在借着众先知所写的,照着永恒的上帝的谕旨,已经向万国显明出来,使他们相信而顺服【信服真道】。27 愿荣耀借着耶稣基督,归给独一全智的上帝,直到永远。阿们。
    • V25-27记载了保罗对神的赞美与颂赞。
    • (第一)保罗赞美神,因神坚固祂的儿女【坚固他们的心】
    • 问:上帝透过什么来坚固我们?
    • V25上帝能δύναμαι依照我所传的[12]福音耶稣基督所传的信息[13],照着他奥秘的启示,坚定你们。
    • 保罗所传的:
    • (1)福音(1:1-4)耶稣是上帝的儿子(神)、也是大卫儿子(人),他从死里复活。
    • (2)耶稣基督所传的信息 = 基督的教导
    • (3)奥秘的启示 = 隐藏在旧约之中的奥秘
    • e.g.感谢神,祂透过保罗所写的罗马书坚固我的心。
    • 解经的作者 John Murry, Leon Morris, Calvin, Cransfield, Douglas Moo, Krus Collin, Kent Hughes,Tim Keller
    • a.p.我也深信,当你们明白保罗所写的罗马书时,神也按祂的大能坚定了你们。

    • V26 这奥秘[14]自古以来秘而不宣【隐藏不言】,但现在借着众先知所写的[15],照着永恒的上帝的谕旨,已经向万国显明出来[16]
    • 问:这奥秘是什么呢?
    • 注:奥秘不是神秘(难以捉摸),神的谕旨已经 “向万国显明出来”
    • 问:是什么奥秘,已向万国显明出来?
    • 奥秘是信耶稣的外邦人 与信耶稣的犹太人同为後嗣,同蒙福(参:弗3:6-9)
    • 保罗在罗马书中竭力的解释这旧约的奥秘:就是外邦人也如何同样在基督里蒙福
    • 1-33:21-304:9-129-10章、11章、15:8-1315:14-21[17]
    • 问:为什么要等到耶稣来之后,万国才蒙福呢?(Ans 回去参考 罗 11[18]
    • V26 已经向万国显明出来,使他们相信而顺服【信服真道】。
    • 福音所倒外邦之处,使各个民族、国家、文化,顺服主 (1:5)

    • V27 愿荣耀借着[19]耶稣基督,归给独一全智[20]的上帝,直到永远。阿们。
    • (第二)保罗赞美神的智慧
    • 注:荣耀与赞美是借着thru耶稣基督(中保),归给天父上帝
    • 11章时[21] 保罗虽不明白神的计划,但他依然赞美神的智慧
    • 写完罗马书时,他也同样赞美神的智慧
    • 在疫情期间,我们不明白为何允许疫情扩散到全世界
    • O赛55:8耶和华说:我的意念非同你们的意念;我的道路非同你们的道路。
    • 提醒:主配得我们荣耀赞美!上帝一定会坚固你们、上帝是全智慧
    • 能效法保罗。他一生荣耀赞美神!
    • 感谢主给我机会传讲罗马书。求主悦纳我所献 Cor meum tibi offero, Domine, prompte et sincere


[1] On this interpretation of verse 18 the false teachers could well be Judaizing zealots. These were the apostle’s opponents in many instances and they fit the description, “causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which ye learned” Murray, J..

[2]  In view of verse 20 it is difficult to suppress allusion to the beguiling of the serpent (Gen. 3:1–6; cf. 2 Cor. 11:3; 1 Tim. 2:14). Murray, J.

[3] 19, 20 Verse 18 begins with “for” and gives a reason for the preceding exhortations. Verse 19 also begins with “for” but the connection is not the same as in verse 18. The apostle is concerned lest believers at Rome should have their minds corrupted from the simplicity that is unto Christ. The high esteem entertained of the maturity and devotion of the church there (cf. 15:14) only intensifies his zeal for the continuance of this fidelity. Murray, J.

“For”57 (which NIV omits) is difficult, for what follows is not obviously a reason for what went before. Perhaps Paul is expressing his confidence in the Romans (“For ‘I have no fear about you’ ”), or the connection may be “This warning is serious for you are widely known and they will be sure to make an attack on you” (cf. Godet). Obedience is an important concept in Romans (see the note on 1:5), Morris, L.

[4] . Paul speaks of God as The God of peace (as in 15:33), a significant title over against the “divisions” of verse 17. This God of peace, however, is pictured in a warlike activity, that of crushing Satan. We should bear in mind that our English idea of peace, like the Greek from which it is borrowed, is a negative idea, the absence of war. But we must not read our idea of peace back into the Bible.Morris, L..

[5] The preceding verses have in view the divisions caused by Satan’s instruments (cf. 2 Cor. 11:12–15). Murray, J..

[6] There is a Sopater in Acts 20:4 and given that this is a recognized shortening of Sosipater, and remembering that Paul commonly uses people’s correct names, while Luke tends to use the abbreviated forms, it is not impossible that this is the same man. Morris, L.

[7] 24. NIV mg. includes words which some MSS have as verse 24 and which are substantially a repetition of part of verse 20 (the differences are that this verse has a fuller description of Christ and it includes the word “all”). In modern critical editions this section is universally rejected. Morris, L..

[8] (罗16:23、林前1:14、提后4:20、罗16:1) 以拉都、该犹、非比 都在哥林多

[9] Paul’s practice of using an amanuensis is attested in other epistles (1 Cor. 16:21; Gal. 6:11; Col. 4:18; 2 Thess. 3:17.Murray, J. .

[10] The doxology is found in some MSS at the end of chapter 14, by one at the end of chapter 15, by some at this point, by quite a few both here and at the end of chapter 14 (for details see the Introduction, n. 82†), while some omit it altogether. Some hold that Paul wrote it, and others point out that Paul normally closes a letter with a benediction rather than a doxology.Morris, L.

[11] the point made by Brevard S. Childs: “The doxology is not a liturgical response of the letter’s recipients to Paul’s words, but a liturgical response of Paul to the subject of his book.Morris, L..

[12] 透过 福音、基督所传的信息【新约】;隐藏在旧约奥秘【旧约】

[13] When he says “my gospel” (cf. 2:16; 1 Thess. 1:5; 2 Tim. 2:8) he means the gospel that was entrusted to him and which he preached (cf. 1 Cor. 15:1; Gal. 1:11; 2:2, 7; Eph. 3:6; 1 Thess. 2:4; 1 Tim. 1:11). “The preaching of Jesus Christ” could mean the preaching on the part of Christ through the instrumentality of Paul (cf. 15:18). But it is more likely the preaching concerned with Jesus Christ is in view. The gospel is essentially the preaching which has Christ as its subject; Paul preached Christ (cf. 1 Cor. 1:23; 2 Cor. 4:5). Thus the establishing is to be in accordance with the gospel of Jesus Christ whom Paul preached and there is no dissonance between Paul’s gospel and the preaching of Christ. The term “preaching” is not to be understood as referring merely to the act of preaching. It refers to the message preached and so “the preaching of Jesus Christ” is virtually the gospel of which Jesus Christ is the subject. Murray, J.

[14] (参11:25 μυστήριον )

[15] But it seems that Paul is saying that the real meaning of the Old Testament has become apparent only through the coming of Christ, which, of course, is a constant theme of the New Testament writers.Morris, L .

[16] the mystery has been revealed. The change to the aorist tense is significant; it points to a definite event, the coming of Christ. Morris, L.

[17]  【罗1-3】 保罗定外邦人与犹太人都是犯了罪。【罗3:21-30】 外邦人与犹太人是一样:神的义,因信耶稣基督加给一切相信的人,并没有分别。【罗4:9-12】 亚伯拉罕做外邦人的父。【罗9-10章】 解释为什么以色列人拒绝不信,而外邦人却相信【罗11章】 解释外邦人(野橄榄)被接上橄榄树上。【罗15:8-13】 外邦人与犹太人拥有同样盼望。【罗15:14-21】 保罗为外邦人作基督耶稣的仆役

[18] 如果你认为上帝欠我们,那么你所认识的恩典与怜悯其实不是恩典与怜悯。恩典与怜悯是我们不配有的

[19] “Through Jesus Christ” could most suitably be understood as indicating the person through whom glory is ascribed to God and through whom God’s glory is made known and extolled. The meaning would be, “to the only wise God be glory through Jesus Christ for ever”. Murray, J.

[20] Most translations agree with NIV, to the only wise God, but it is a question whether we should understand it as GNB, “To the only God, who alone is all-wise”.87 However we translate, there is no doubt that Paul thinks of God as the only God and also as the only God who is wise.Morris, L.

[21] 明白神暂时把犹太人圈在不顺服中,为的是将来要怜悯他们(11:33-36)