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约翰福音:017 信心与神迹 约4章43至54

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017 信心与神迹 约4章43至54

  • 问小孩子:没有看见过神迹 与 看见神迹。谁的信心更大?
  • 问小孩子:见过神迹的人更有信心对不对?
  • Pic:上文4:4-42 许多撒马利亚人,因妇人的见证与耶稣的教导后来信耶稣是救世主 (V42)
  • 4:43-54
  • Pic 地图: 叙加(4:5)、加利利、迦拿、迦百农
  • .(I).有些人可能因经历神迹而暂时接待耶稣
  • 4:43[1]两天之后,耶稣离开那里,往加利利去。44 耶稣自己说过:“先知在本乡[2]是不受尊敬的[3]。”45 耶稣到了加利利的时候,加利利人都欢迎他【接待他】,因为他们曾经上耶路撒冷去过节,见过他所行[4]的一切[5]
  • 耶稣起初在加利利大受欢迎。因耶稣能行神迹。
  • V45…因为他们曾经上耶路撒冷去过节,见过他所行[6]的一切[7]
  • 耶稣在耶路撒冷洁净圣殿,并那里行了许多神迹(2:23)
  • 可惜后来他们却拒绝[8]耶稣(6:66)
  • 原来加利利人都欢迎他【接待他】是暂时的。
  • 这也是为什么主说: V44先知在本乡是不受尊敬的”。
  • 其实他们并没有尊耶稣为神的儿子,那拯救世人的主。
  • 惊人:耶稣没有向撒马利亚人行神迹[9],他们却信耶稣是世人的救主(4:42)
  • 耶稣在犹太人面前行出许多神迹,但后来却许多犹太人不信祂 (6:66)
  • 之前 (2:23–25), 约翰已经提示读者们,当时有人是因神迹而暂时相信
  • 2:23…许多人看见他所行的神迹,就信了他的名。24耶稣却不信任他们,因为他知道所有的人
  • e.g.一些人因为祷告很灵验暂时相信。但其实不信耶稣所说的话
  • .(II).耶稣责备犹太人,若不见神迹总是不肯信
  • V46 耶稣又到了加利利的迦拿,就是他变水为酒的地方。有一个大臣[10],他的儿子[11]在迦百农患病。47 他听见耶稣从犹太到了加利利,就来见他,求他下去医治他的儿子,因为他的儿子快要死了。48 耶稣对他说:“你们若看不见神迹奇事,总是不肯信。”
  • 背景:大臣(多半是希律王安提帕的臣)tetrarch of Galilee
  • Pic一个大臣儿子在迦百农患病,他到迦拿(约28公里 )求耶稣(步行需约7小时)
  • “他的儿子快要死了”医疗已无效。
  • 再多的钱与权利都无法换生命。他为孩子的性命求耶稣
  • V48 耶稣对他说:“你们若看不见神迹奇事,总是不肯信。
  • 主看起来好像不客气,但其实说这句话目的是为了让大臣与一家后来能信祂。
  • 问:“你们”是谁? = 犹太人也包括那大臣
  • 问:“总是不肯信”? 大臣不信?
  • 问:若是不信又为何千里迢迢找耶稣?求耶稣救命?
  • 耶稣的责备暗示
  • 大臣的信心只停留在信耶稣能行神迹罢了 miracle worker
  • e.g.有些人走投无路时,可能抱有试一试耶稣,若耶稣救我我才相信祂
  • e.g.他们抱有耶稣可能可以帮助他,却不愿意信耶稣就是唯一的救主(4:42)。
  • 问:有没有人是因经历神迹后才信主的? 一些人像大臣看见神迹后才信主!(V53)
  • e.g.一位弟兄的姐姐患上了末期癌症。后来癌症突然不治痊愈,肿瘤也突然不见!
  • e.g.后来他因姐姐的这神迹,也信了主。
  • 问:见到神迹的人就一定信耶稣? 那就不一定
  • e.g.耶稣在迦百农行许多神迹(可1:21-26、2:1-12、路4:23、太11:23)
  • 11:23 迦百农啊!你会被高举到天上吗?你必降到阴间。在你那里行过的神迹,如果行在所多玛,那城还会存留到今天。24 但我告诉你们,在审判的日子,所多玛那地方所受的,比你还轻呢。
  • e.g.约翰在(11:45–46)会让我们看见神迹不一定使人能够信主
  • 问:为什么有一些人看见神迹后不信?(太11:23-24、约11:47-48)
  • 问:为什么有一些人看见神迹后会相信?
  • 问:为什么一些从来没有看见神迹却相信?
    • 答:神圣灵重生的恩典有关(约3:3) it is grace !
  • 问:今天所有的病痛,是不是求主就有求必应?
  • 神有祂的计划,祂不一定就要医治(王下13:14、林后12:9、提前5:23)
  • 问:我们生病能够求主耶稣行神迹医治吗? 当然能!
  • 注:但神从来没有答应祂一定行神迹给我们!
  • 一些传道人误解圣经,认为不得医治是因为没有信心。
  • 注:这大臣“总是不肯信”,但耶稣却决定医治他的儿子
  • 真信心并不是得医治的必要条件。关键是在于主要不要救他。
  • .(III).看大臣信心的旅程
  • 49 大臣说:“先生,求你趁我的孩子还没有死就下去吧!”50 耶稣告诉他:“回去吧,你的儿子好了【活了】。”那人信耶稣对他说的话,就回去了。51 正下[12]去的时候,他的仆人迎着他走来,说他的孩子好了【活了】。52 他就向仆人查问孩子是什么时候好转的。他们告诉他:“昨天[13]下午一点钟【未时】,热就退了。”53 这父亲就知道,那正是耶稣告诉他“你的儿子好了【活了】”的时候,他自己和全家就【都】信了。54 这是耶稣从犹太回到加利利以后所行的第二件神迹。
  • “那人信耶稣对他说的话,“回去吧,你的儿子好了【活了】”
  • 注:目前大臣还只是相信耶稣能医治罢了。
  • 不知他回家的路途中是否有怀疑?难道凭耶稣一句话就行?
  • 不知为什么他用了那么长的时间才到家? (骑驴或马只需3小时)
  • 查问仆人孩子是什么时候好转的,发现就是耶稣与他说话的时刻!
  • V53这父亲就知道,那正是耶稣告诉他“你的儿子好了”的时候,他自己和全家就【都】信了。
  • 有一些人他们对主的信心只是一些部分
  • a.p.从局部相信,到完全信靠主耶稣是“唯一的救主”
  • e.g.有一些需要像大臣一样类似经历。他们才全心信靠主
  • a.p.主怜悯人。
  • a.p.我们也应当怜悯在我们当中缺乏信心的。
  • 🙏 若有一些人像这大臣一样无法全心信靠主,求主祢怜恤帮助他们。

[1] The presence of John 4:1–42 does not reflect deep dependence on Samaritan theology, or a church heavily engaged in Samaritan evangelism;17 rather, the emphasis on the receptivity of the Samaritans, the introduction of the title ‘the Saviour of the world’, and the interest of the Gentiles (12:20ff.), in line with the cosmic scale the Prologue has already established, conspire to warn Jewish readers not to miss out on the blessing to which they should be heir (cf. 12:37ff.).Carson, D. A..

[2] 主说他的本乡不尊敬他 (有许多种解释,列出3个比较可能的)(A)指犹大Judea,因耶稣是在犹大支派 ,在伯利恒出生。westcott (B)P本乡指在加利利的拿撒勒城 (太13:53–58; 可6:1–6; 路4:24-30) Keener, C. S.(C)P本乡指加利利的犹太人。比撒马利亚人接待耶稣,但犹太人却拒绝他。Carson 。 我个人觉得比较可能是(C)因为接下来约翰让我们看见 本乡指加利利的犹太人后来从欢迎耶稣到后来拒绝他

[3]Jesus himself has declared that ‘a prophet has no honour in his own country’ (unlike the reception he enjoyed in Samaria), and he determinedly and knowingly heads in that direction. Therefore when he arrives, the Galileans welcome him—not as the Messiah, but because they had seen all that he had done at the Passover Feast in Jerusalem. John has already let his readers know how Jesus viewed that kind of faith (2:23–25), that kind of welcome. The details of the healing that follows make the same point. Verse 46 again begins with oun, ‘therefore’, introducing not simply v. 46a, but the entire narrative: precisely because the welcome the Galileans displayed was so dependent on miracles (unlike the faith of the Samaritans!), therefore on visiting Cana and being petitioned to perform a healing, Jesus detects in the royal official a welcome and a faith that desires a cure but that does not truly trust him. Indeed, the royal official, in Jesus’ view, exemplifies what is wrong with the Galileans as a whole: Jesus’ rebuke (v. 48) is in the plural, addressed to the people at large. Other details in the account support this reading (cf. notes below). What this means is that when John tells us that the Galileans welcomed him, the context he develops shows that here, as so often, he is writing with deep irony.The material that follows ch. 4 also justifies this interpretation. John 5 locates Jesus back in Jerusalem, where rising opposition is apparent. Back in Galilee in John 6, the crowds misunderstand his messiahship (6:15), and many of his disciples abandon him (6:66). The drama continues to unfold until John pronounces the final summarizing verdict on the large-scale failure of the Jews to believe in Jesus (12:36–43). These stern words do not apply exclusively to leaders, for in v. 36 Jesus is addressing the vast crowds at the Feast (cf. also 12:42); nor is the denunciation aimed exclusively at Judeans (as opposed to Galileans), for John explicitly identifies the crowd as ‘that [which] had come for the Feast’ (12:12), certainly including Galileans. When John quotes Isaiah 6 and Isaiah 53, he has in mind the rejection of Messiah by Israel, not by Judeans.

If this interpretation is correct, the significance of vv. 43–54, and their place in the development of this Gospel, become clear. The Samaritan interlude reminds the reader again of who Jesus really is: the Messiah (4:25–26), the one who has been sent by his Father to reap a crop for eternal life (vv. 34, 36), the Saviour of the world (v. 42). It also makes the large-scale failure of Israel to come to terms with Jesus all the more tragic: despised Samaritans turn to Christ, while many of the historic covenant community either actively oppose him or cannot progress beyond a fascination for miracles and politics.Carson, D. A.

 4:44 no honor in his own hometown. In other gospels, the “hometown” that dishonors Jesus is Nazareth in Galilee (Matt. 13:53–58; Mark 6:1–6; Luke 4:24), and John likewise acknowledges Jesus’ identification with Galilee (1:46; 2:1; 7:42, 52). Yet the Galileans “welcomed him” (v. 45), so here it may be that “his own hometown” is Judea (cf. v. 3), from where His ancestor David came, rather than Galilee. Or the point is that the Galileans’ welcome of Jesus is superficial and ephemeral (7:2–5), based on their need to “see signs and wonders” in order to believe (v. 48; see Introduction: Theology of John).The Reformation Study Bible

Thus the writer seems to indicate that Judea was Jesus’ own country.457 John here provides not so much “a historical judgment” as “a theological one.”458 After all, as messiah, Jesus would be a son of David (cf. 7:42), and of Judahite descent (4:9; 18:35), according to the flesh (1:14; Rom 1:3), even if he was also more than a son of David (Mark 12:36–37). Perhaps more critically, the ideal reader recalls 1:11: Jesus came to “his own,” and they did not receive him. His own are “Jews” (4:9; 18:35), “Judeans” in the broad sense of the term, which allows for a contrast with the welcome reception by the Samaritans.459 Further, in this context the Galileans explicitly welcome him (4:45).460 Thus the writer applies the saying quite differently from Synoptic writers, who apply it to Nazareth (Mark 6:4; Matt 13:57; Luke 4:24).461 John probably also reflects here the assumption that his audience knows and accepts the tradition in which Jesus was born in Bethlehem (see comment on 7:42). Keener, C. S.

[4] 约 2:23  当耶稣在耶路撒冷过逾越节的时候,有许多人看见他所行的神迹,就信了他的名。Joh 2:23  Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover Feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs that he was doing.

[5] 45 When he reached Galilee Jesus was welcomed105 by the Galileans. Large numbers of them habitually went up to Jerusalem at the feasts, and some had been there for the events narrated in 2:13–25. “The Passover feast” (John says only “the feast,” but the Passover is surely meant) is the one mentioned in that passage. Once again we are reminded that Jesus did many things that are not recorded. He cleansed the Temple, but the record is incomplete, as 2:23 plainly shows. It is not John’s purpose to attempt a complete chronicle, but only to select such events and teachings as will bring out his thesis that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (20:31). So now he does not mention what the things were that so impressed the Galileans, but contents himself with pointing out that their attitude to Jesus was conditioned by what they had seen in Jerusalem.Morris, L..

[6] 约 2:23  当耶稣在耶路撒冷过逾越节的时候,有许多人看见他所行的神迹,就信了他的名。Joh 2:23  Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover Feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs that he was doing.

[7] 45 When he reached Galilee Jesus was welcomed105 by the Galileans. Large numbers of them habitually went up to Jerusalem at the feasts, and some had been there for the events narrated in 2:13–25. “The Passover feast” (John says only “the feast,” but the Passover is surely meant) is the one mentioned in that passage. Once again we are reminded that Jesus did many things that are not recorded. He cleansed the Temple, but the record is incomplete, as 2:23 plainly shows. It is not John’s purpose to attempt a complete chronicle, but only to select such events and teachings as will bring out his thesis that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (20:31). So now he does not mention what the things were that so impressed the Galileans, but contents himself with pointing out that their attitude to Jesus was conditioned by what they had seen in Jerusalem.Morris, L..

[8] 加利利的拿撒勒城 (太13:53–58; 可6:1–6; 路4:24-30) 与加利利的百农 (太11:23; 可 1:21–26; 2:1–12; 路 4:23) 都拒绝耶稣。 加利利人拒绝耶稣(约6:66)

[9] 除了妇人(4:18)

[10] official. An officer in the service of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee (cf. Matt. 14:1–12; Luke 23:7), since the term refers to one who serves a king. Although the location (Capernaum) and some details of this healing (e.g., gravity of the illness, Jesus’ healing by a word spoken at a distance) resemble those of the cure of a centurion’s servant (Matt. 8:5–13; Luke 7:1–10), the differences (official vs. centurion, son vs. servant, etc.) indicate that the incidents are distinct miracles. The Reformation Study Bible

The Greek word for ‘royal official’, basilikos, sometimes rendered ‘nobleman’, probably refers to someone officially attached to the service of a basileus, a ‘king’—here doubtless referring to Herod Antipas. He was tetrarch of Galilee from 4 BC to 39, AD and not properly a ‘king’ at all; but he was popularly considered one (Mk. 6:14).18 There is no evidence that this official was a Gentile. Unlike the Gentile centurion in Matthew 8:5–13 and Luke 7:2–10 to which he is often compared, it is his son, not his servant, who is at the point of death. Carson, D. A.

. Some exegetes have held that this is a variant of the story of the healing of the centurion’s slave but about the only things in common are some interesting verbal parallels (noted, e.g., by Barrett and Hoskyns), and the healing at a distance. There the man is a centurion and thus a Gentile, here he is in Herod’s service and probably a Jew;107 there the person healed is a slave, here a son; there Jesus speaks his word of power in Capernaum, here in Cana; there the centurion’s faith evokes Jesus’ praise, here the father’s faith is weak; there the centurion asks Jesus not to come to his home, here the father begs him to come. There the illness is paralysis, here a fever. There the elders plead for the man, here he pleads in person.Morris, L. .

[11] there is no evidence that the ‘royal official’ was a Gentile (unlike the centurion in Mt. 8:5–13; Lk. 7:2–10; cf. notes on Jn. 4:46). Here it is the official’s son, not a servant, who is healed.Carson, D. A.

[12] 51–53 As he journeyed116 his slaves (this is the meaning of “servants”) met him with the good news that the lad was well. On inquiring117 when118 the boy “got better”119 he was given a precise time: “yesterday at the seventh hour.” This presents us with something of a difficulty. If John is using the normal method of computing time this will be about one o’clock in the afternoon. But since it is only twenty miles or so between Cana and Capernaum many feel that it is unlikely that the officer would still be on his way as late as this. They suggest accordingly that John was using the alleged Roman time system so that the time meant is 7 p.m. If the man reached Jesus at such a time he might well delay his return until the next day, but, they ask, Why would he do this if the encounter took place in the early afternoon? This suggestion has its attractions, but there are strong objections to the view that John ever uses the “Roman” system (see on 1:39). In the present case the man is expressly said to have believed Jesus, so that his anxiety was relieved and he may have been in no hurry to return. Practical considerations may also have weighed with him, such as the need to rest his horse (he would certainly have ridden the animal hard on the way to Jesus). Or the delay may have been accidental. In any case sunset would bring him into a new day, though admittedly “yesterday” would sound a little strange if used in the evening of an event that had occurred around midday.Morris, L.

[13] If one assumes a fifteen-mile walk and the word of healing being spoken at the seventh hour (1:00 P.M., in 4:52), it is not surprising that the man is met by his servants the day after his son’s healing (4:50–52).Keener, C. S.

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约翰福音

014 你要活水泉源吗? 约4章1至19

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014 你要活水泉源吗? 约4章1至19

    • 3 Pic 问孩子:带你去玩呢? 你喜乐的日子多,还是的苦日子比较多?
    • 4 slides4:1 -19
    • Pic 往加利利去路过撒玛利亚的叙加城,[1]
    • Pic[2]今天当撒玛利亚人总数约有800人
    • 背景:犹太人仇视撒马利亚人[3]。(约4:9、8:48、路9:52-54)[4]
    • e.g.骂耶稣是撒马利亚人“邪魔歪道”(约8:48)
    • e.g.雅各、约翰说:从天上降下来烧灭他们 (路9:54)
    • Pic背景:1原本是一个国。北国撒玛利亚后来成为敬拜金牛(王上12:28-29) 2宗教杂种:北国被掳时亚述把其它人带进与他们通婚(王下17:24-29)3撒马利亚人敬拜耶和华与其它神(王下17:24-41)。4回归时:犹太人拒绝撒玛利亚帮助重建圣殿(拉4:2-3)。5撒马利亚人阻挡犹太人重建圣殿与城墙(拉4:2-23、尼2:10、6:1-14)6犹太人拆毁撒玛利亚人在基利心山上的圣殿(约主前2世纪)7撒玛利亚人后来报复,用骨灰撒在犹太人的圣殿,玷污圣殿[5]

    • I)耶稣跨越种族仇恨向撒玛利亚人传福音
    • O V6 在那里有雅各井。耶稣因为旅途疲倦了,就坐在井旁;那时大约正午。7有一个撒玛利亚妇人来打水[6]。耶稣对她说:“请给我水喝。”8  那时,他的门徒都进城买食物[7]去了。9  撒玛利亚妇人对耶稣说:“你是犹太人,怎么向我,一个撒玛利亚妇人要水喝呢[8]?”(原来犹太人和撒玛利亚人不相往来。)
    • Pic主耶稣旅途疲倦坐在井边,门徒进城买食物。
    • 疲惫的主向撒马利亚人传福音!他没有放下能过服事人的机会!
    • ap有时当我们最疲乏却服事主时,主会恩待我们让我们看看更大的果效!second worship
    • Pic问:你会选择几点打水?为什么约在下午十二点去打水?避开人
    • 问:她为什么避开人?因结婚失败5次,现在有一个不是丈夫的男人(V18、29)
    • 主没有嫌弃她向她开口讨水喝,打开了话题使她愿意与他说话。
    • V9..你是犹太人,怎么向我,一个撒玛利亚妇人要水喝呢[9]?(原来犹太人和撒玛利亚人不相往来)
    • 背景:犹太人不能与撒马利亚人一同吃喝。或共用器具。
    • 主告诉她他虽然向她要水喝,但他能把活水赐给她

    • II)耶稣能赐令人不渴的活水
    • V10 耶稣回答她:“你若知道上帝的恩赐,和对你说‘请给我水喝’的是谁,你必早已求他,他也必早把活水[10]赐给你了。”11妇人说:“先生,你没有打水的器具,井又深,你从哪里得活水呢?12 我们的祖先雅各[11]把这口井留给我们,他自己和子孙以及牲畜都喝这井的水,难道你比他还大吗?”13 耶稣回答:“凡喝这水的,还要再渴;14人若喝我所赐的水[12],就永远不渴[13]。我所赐的水要在他里面成为涌流的泉源,直涌到永生。”
    • 问:方圆百里只有这口井,哪来的活水 living water?
    • 她提出反对(1)你没有打水的器具 (2)井又那么深(3)你敢说你比雅各还大?
    • 这口井是雅各留下的,难道你比雅各还厉害?
    • 雅各背景:他是以色列人十二支派的父(创49:28)与神摔跤 (创32:24-32) 被神改名为以色列
    • 不是井里的水(V13),因喝了雅各井里的水,还要再渴。
    • 耶稣所赐的是活水!
    • 问:活水指什么?流动的河水?洗礼?属灵的水?永生?圣灵?上帝?
    • O预表上帝:2:13 因为我的百姓做了两件恶事,就是离弃我这活水的泉源..(耶17:13)
    • Pic预表圣灵:(7:37-39、赛12:3、44:3、49:10、结36:25-27、39:29、珥2:28–32)
    • (撒马利亚人只认摩西五经) 摩西五经也提到基督与活水
    • 24:7 [14]必有水从他(雅各)的桶中流出来,他的后裔必在多水之处;他的王必超过亚甲,他的国度必被高举。(V6 河水=活水)

    • V14人若喝我所赐的水,就永远不渴。我所赐的水要在他里面成为涌流的泉源,直涌到永生。”
    • 问:活水(圣灵)在我们里面,有什么益处呢?
    • 1)活水(圣灵)使我们永远不渴
    • 世界所带来的快乐无法满足我们的内心 e.g.你买东西或成就,所得的快乐。很快就失去。
    • e.g.工作、结婚、买房子、生孩子、买汽车、工作升级 问:真正满足了你的心吗?
    • Pic sea water用世界来满足内心。如喝海水来解渴。[15] (更严重脱水)
    • O5:10 贪爱银子的,不因有银子满足
    • e.g.妇人与6个男人的关系relationship,失败口渴!
    • 经历:有些人必须先像这妇人一样被世界吸干,口渴。后来回到主前得活水
    • e.g.我之前追求世界与世界的享受。我后来得了活水。
    • 尝过主恩的人,是不可能回头的 (诗34:8)
    • 我们来敬拜主,不单单是因为责任!因为在敬拜中我们得满足、喜乐、平安
    • If 如果你不明白我所说的,是因为你可能还未经历活水
    • 。(2)活水(圣灵)在我们里面成为涌流的泉源
    • e.g.主赐圣灵住在我们内心 (约14:17、罗8:9、林前3:16、提后1:14)
    • 拥有圣灵才能在患难中经历 平安 (罗14:17、15:13),神的爱(罗5:5)
    • e.g.弟兄的见证:生体不适的老妇人每一天埋怨生气。后来信主后充满了喜乐与盼望。
    • e.g.在新冠病毒期间,心里渴望能够向主唱诗歌。敬拜主我心得满足!
    • 不是唱卡拉OK!而是被圣灵充满时。有平安与喜乐!
    • CALL 如果你渴了,就要归向主! Return to Lord if you are thirsty !
    • 小孩子们,你若是不明白牧师所说,那可能是因为你还未经历圣灵。你要向主求活水!
    • O11:13 何况天父,岂不更将圣灵给求他的人吗
    • 有一些人需要在世界像撒马利亚妇人先经历口渴、才明白活水的重要性
    • 。(3)活水(圣灵)直涌到永生 welling up to eternal life
    • E.g.老妇人说:“很惨,要死不会死”。 
    • 圣灵如何使基督复活,将来祂也必使我们生体复活 (罗8:11)
    • 求主让活水在你里面涌流不断。 赐你喜乐、复活的盼望。 (罗8:23)

    • .III)耶稣寻回罪人并赐他们活水
    • V15 妇人说:“先生,请把这水[16]赐给我,使我不渴,也不用来这里打水。”16 耶稣说:“你去,叫你的丈夫,然后回到这里来。”17 妇人对他说:“我没有丈夫。”耶稣说:“你说‘没有丈夫’是不错的。18 你以前有五个丈夫[17],现在有的并不是你的丈夫[18];你说这话是真的。”19 妇人说:“先生,我看出你是[19]先知[20]
    • 妇人向耶稣要活水(还停留在物质水的层面)
    • 主耶稣接下来要她把丈夫带来(目的是为了指出1她的罪,2让她知道祂知道)
    • OV18 你以前有五个丈夫,现在有的并不是你的丈夫;你说这话是真的。”
    • 问:耶稣故意揭开她的过去?伤害、内疚、罪恶、悲剧、难堪?
    • 把活水给她之前,耶稣先把她的罪恶指出来。
    • e.g.医生动手术医治,需要揭开伤疤。
    • 学习:耶稣温柔的讲出她的过去,并接纳她。
    • 提醒:我们经常会论断人,不愿给人机会。
    • 问:5次被休?抛弃丈夫? (若有孩子,失去孩子因古代是丈夫拿去)
    • 问:死了[21]?应该不是死了因会被视为克夫更没有人敢娶她
    • 注:避开人群,正午才出来打水(V6),现在有的男人不是丈夫(V18)
    • Pic这妇人是人生是可怜与失败的 (6个男人) she is pitiful and failure in this life
    • 她接受主耶稣的那一刻,就从失败,变成人生的赢家
    • Pic e.g.我认识一基督徒的姐妹曾与很多人同居,堕胎多次,也吸毒。一些人可能觉得这样的人必有恶报。后来她全心全意归向主后,主赐福她给她永生,赐她幸福的婚姻与孩子。

    • 问:你的生命枯干吗?
    • 问:你是不是不断喝了海水,却一直口渴?
    • 问:你要活水泉源吗?你当祈求主耶稣,祂应许必赐给你活水!
    • V10你必早已求他,他也必早把活水赐给你了。


[1] Popular commentators have sometimes insisted that the longer route through the Transjordan was the customary route for Jewish travellers, so great was their aversion to Samaritans; this in turn suggests that the ‘had to’ language (edei) reflects the compulsion of divine appointment, not geography. Josephus, however, provides ample assurance not only that the antipathy between Jews and Samaritans was strong, but also that Jews passing from Judea to Galilee or back nevertheless preferred the shorter route through Samaria (Ant. xx. 118; Bel. ii. 232; Vita 269). Carson, D. A. (1991.

[2] King Omri named the new capital of the northern kingdom ‘Samaria’ (1 Ki. 16:24), which name was then transferred to the district and sometimes to the entire northern kingdom. After the Assyrians captured Samaria in 722–721 BC, they deported all the Israelites of substance and settled the land with foreigners, who intermarried with the surviving Israelites and adhered to some form of their ancient religion (2 Ki. 17–18). After the exile, Jews returning to their homeland, the remains of the southern kingdom, viewed the Samaritans not only as the children of political rebels but as racial half-breeds whose religion was tainted by various unacceptable elements (Ne. 13; cf. Jos., Ant. xi. 297–347, esp. 340). About 400 BC the Samaritans erected a rival temple on Mount Gerizim; toward the end of the second century BC this was destroyed by John Hyrcanus, the Hasmonean ruler in Judea. This combination of events fuelled religious and theological animosities. Certainly by the first century the Samaritans had developed their own religious heritage based on the Pentateuch (they did not accept the other books of the Hebrew Bible as canonical), continuing to focus their worship not on Jerusalem and its temple but on Mount Gerizim. A small number of Samaritans survives to this day. Carson, D. A..

[3] The name “Samaria” was applied to the region when the city of Samaria became the capital of the northern Israelite kingdom under King Omri in the 9th century BCE. In the biblical period, the majority of the population in the region were Yahweh worshipers (even after the Assyrian conquest in the late 8th century BCE), just as the Judeans to the south of them. Those Yahweh worshipers of the region of Samaria who eventually rejected Jerusalem and its temple as sacred centers are the Samaritans. For them, Mount Gerizim in the vicinity of ancient Shechem (modern Tell Balatah, near Nablus) and the temple on it became the focus of religious life. They do not, however, consider their identity to be tied to that of the city or province of Samaria but see it based on the concept of guardians (Hebrew: shomrim); that is, they think of themselves as the guardians of the Torah. Oxford bibliographies

[4] In 721 B.C. the Assyrians swept through Israel, the Northern Kingdom, and took the inhabitants off to Assyria. During their years in Assyria, many Jews intermarried with the Assyrians and Cuthites.In 587 B.C. Babylon took the people of the Southern Kingdom, Judah, captive into Babylon. But in Babylon there was no intermarriage, and when the Jews came back to their homes they were of unadulterated Jewish blood. As a result they refused to accept their northern kinsmen, and both sides developed an implacable, murderous hatred for each other. Jewish rabbis said, “Let no man eat the bread of the Cuthites [the Samaritans], for he who eats their bread is as he who eats swine’s flesh.” A popular prayer in those days said, “And Lord, do not remember the Samaritans in the resurrection.” So it was truly amazing when Jesus crossed those lines. Hughes, R. K. (1999.

[5] In 6 CE some Samaritans crept into the Jerusalem Temple and scattered human bones in it. Oxford biblical studies online

[6] Jacob met Rachel seeking water about noon (Gen 29:7). (On the tradition that Moses met Zipporah then, see above.) A final possible reason for mentioning Jesus’ encounter with the woman at “noon” is the narrative’s contrast with Nicodemus, who approached Jesus “by night” (3:2; cf. 3:19–21); in contrast to that encounter, this one is initiated by Jesus, who is not ashamed to be seen with with the person whom he meets. Keener, C. S.

[7] That Jesus and his disciples were willing to purchase food from Samaritans betrays a certain freedom from the self-imposed regulations of the stricter sort of Jews, who would have been unwilling to eat food that had been handled by Samaritans. Some foods, however, especially dry foods, were considered less easily defiled than others (cf. notes on 2:6). Carson, D. A..

[8] The inherited suspicions and animosities between Jews and Gentiles (cf. notes on v. 4) erupted at practical levels. Although some Jews could imagine eating with Samaritans (Mishnah Berakoth 7:1), doubtless many a Jew would not eat with a Samaritan on the latter’s home turf for fear of incurring ritual defilement. Probably this fear was intensified when the Samaritan was a woman: within a generation Jewish leaders would codify a law (Mishnah Niddah 4:1) that reflected longstanding popular sentiment, to the effect that all ‘the daughters of the Samaritans are menstruants from their cradle’ and therefore perpetually in a state of ceremonial uncleanness.Carson, D. A.

[9] This phrase can also be translated, “Jews use nothing in common with Samaritans,” referring to the legislation that forbade a Jew to eat or drink with Samaritans, who were more lax in their understanding of ritual cleanness. The surprise is not so much that Jesus would speak with a Samaritan, but that He would drink from a Samaritan vessel.The Reformation Study Bible

[10] 4:1–3. The connections between this account and the preceding chapters occur at several levels. Water symbolism continues (cf. 2:6; 3:5; 4:10ff.).Carson, D. A..

But Jesus applies the image of a well here not to Torah but to eternal life (4:14), through the Spirit (7:37–39) Keener, C. S.

[11] Samaritan tradition seems to have heavily emphasized the Samaritans’ descent from Jacob194—and Samaritans knew the Jewish version of their ancestry, which emphasized their impure lineage (2 Kgs 17:24–41). Josephus complains that the Samaritans deceptively try to profess themselves “Jews” when matters are going well for the Jewish community, but admit the truth by denying their kinship when hard times come to the Jewish people (Josephus Ant. 9.291; 11.340–341). Later traditions declare that some rabbis openly contended against the Samaritan claim to descent from Joseph (Gen. Rab. 94:7), and some marshall evidence from the Qumran scrolls for the same idea.195 Jewish teachers also frequently used the expression “our father Jacob.” Keener, C. S.

[12] many Old Testament associations. In Jeremiah 2:13 Jehovah calls himself “the spring of living water.” Psalm 36:9 was an oft-quoted passage, as it is today: “For with you is the fountain of life.” Similarly Isaiah 55:1 says, “Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters.” Psalm 42:1 states, “As the deer pants for streams of water, so my soul pants for you, O God. My soul thirsts for God, for the living God.”Hughes, R. K. (1999)

The metaphor speaks of God and his grace, knowledge of God, life, the transforming power of the Holy Spirit; in Isaiah 1:16–18; Ezekiel 36:25–27 water promises cleansing. All of these themes are picked up in John’s use of ‘water’ or ‘living water’ in this gospel (cf. notes on 3:5; 4:10–15; 7:38; 19:34). In John’s Gospel there are passages where Jesus is the living water as he is the bread from heaven (6:35), and other passages where he gives the living water to believers. In this chapter, the water is the satisfying eternal life mediated by the Spirit that only Jesus, the Messiah and Saviour of the world, can provide.Carson, D. A..

Given his propensity for double entendres, John probably also intends “living water” to signify the “water of life” (Rev 22:1, 17; cf. Rev 7:17; 21:6).221 In biblical tradition, God himself (Jer 2:13; 17:13) appears as living waters, and Wisdom as a fountain of life (Prov 18:4).222 “Living waters” would flow from Jerusalem in the end time (Zech 14:8), and it would be natural for John and his tradition to connect this passage midrashically with Ezek 47, where this river brings life (Ezek 47:9).223 This water would also purify from sin (Zech 13:1; cf. John 3:5) Keener, C. S.

[13] This thirst is not for natural water, but for God, for eternal life in the presence of God; and the thirst is met not by removing this aching desire but by pouring out the Spirit. Indeed, this water will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life (v. 14)—clearly a reference to the Spirit who alone gives life (6:63). Again there are echoes of Old Testament promises. In the day of God’s salvation, with joy God’s people ‘will draw water from the wells of salvation’ (Is. 12:3). ‘They will neither hunger nor thirst’ (Is. 49:10; cf. Rev. 7:16); the pouring out of God’s Spirit will be like pouring ‘water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground’ (Is. 44:3). The language of inner satisfaction and transformation calls to mind a string of prophecies anticipating new hearts, the exchange of failed formalism in religion for a heart that knows and experiences God, and that hungers to do his will (Je. 31:29–34; Ezk. 36:25–27; Joel 2:28–32; cf. notes on 3:5). It is hard not to think of Isaiah 55:1–3: ‘Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters … that your soul may live.’Carson, D. A..

[14] Samaritans who limited the canon to the Pentateuch might not have appreciated such allusions to the prophets (though John’s Jewish readers would), but in the later Samaritan liturgy that has come down to us for the Day of Atonement, it is said of the Taheb (the Samaritan equivalent of the Messiah) that ‘water shall flow from his buckets’ (an adaptation of Nu. 24:7; cf. Bruce, p. 105). Carson, D. A. .

[15] 人的肾脏只能产生比盐水略低盐度的尿液。所以,为了去除海水中过量的钠nà  (sodium),我们排尿的水比我们实际喝的水要多。脱水就开始了。

[16] “Living,” that is, fresh, running or flowing,212 water was essential for purification in strict Jewish tradition (although in practice the requirement was often in some sense circumvented).213 A well was not always living water in the strictest sense, except where it was known to depend on an underground stream.214 Thus Jesus promises a greater kind of water.215 Water drawn from wells was often thought to be less healthy than that drawn from a spring or from rainwater. Keener, C. S.

[17] Wives could, for example, be divorced for infertility.242 Unfortunately, this charitable reading is probably not the first one which would have occurred to John’s first audience. The trial period for allowing pregnancy was often considerable; later rabbis allowed up to ten years, and this woman was married five times.243 (After two or three marriages a reputation for infertility probably would have decreased her marital prospects,244 but certainly no more than a reputation for infidelity; that she was married five times suggests that other factors made her desirable for Samaritan men.)245 The lack of mention of children here would hardly support a diagnosis of infertility; husbands normally took the children in the event of divorce。Keener, C. S.

[18] This woman may have lost some husbands through death, but her coming to the well alone (4:7), her possible designs on Jesus (4:17), and her current nonmarital sexual union (4:18) together would probably suggest to most ancient readers that she had somehow morally warranted at least part of her situationKeener, C. S.

[19] Because the Samaritans accepted only the books of the Pentateuch as canonical (cf. notes on v. 4), they understood the words of Deuteronomy 34:10, ‘no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face’, to be absolute and in force until the coming of the prophet like Moses (Dt. 18:15–19; cf. notes on 1:21), the second Moses, the Taheb (as they called this promised ‘messianic’ figure). If there cannot be another prophet between the first Moses and the second Moses, then to call Jesus ‘prophet’ is virtually to call him ‘the prophet’. However, in view of v. 25 it is unlikely that the Samaritan woman is in v. 19 making so clear a confession. The word ‘prophet’ was used to refer to a wide range of ‘gifted’ people, and at this point may not, in the woman’s mind, denote a full-orbed Old Testament prophet, let alone a messianic figure. Carson, D. A.

[20] Over the years it has been typical for preachers and commentators to imagine that the Samaritan woman’s quick response to Jesus’ devastating revelation that he knew she had had five husbands and the man she was living with was not her husband was a clever attempt to divert the conversation. They feel that when she stated, “I can see that you are a prophet,” she was attempting to deflect Jesus from the painful subject of her moral life.But I do not think that view is correct. The Samaritans, as well as the Jews, at that time believed a prophet was sometimes given special insight into people’s problems. For instance, there was the time when Jesus was having his feet washed by a penitent woman and the Pharisees snidely remarked, “If this man were a prophet, he would know who is touching him and what kind of woman she is—that she is a sinner” (Luke 7:39). The supposition is that true prophets have intuitive gifts. So it is reasonable to conclude that Jesus’ knowledge of the Samaritan woman’s condition, along with his claim to provide for her “a spring of water welling up to eternal life,” produced her sincere supposition that he might be a prophet. Then when she brought up the controversy about worship, she was asking a question that was the result of her dawning perception of who he was and of her sin and the knowledge that something needed to be done about it. She was evidently saying to herself, “I am a sinner before God. I must bring God an offering for sin. But where do I take it?” To her and her people, the cure for sin was sacrifice. But where was the sacrifice to be made? She was concerned about what God desired from her, and the answer was worship. Hughes, R. K. (1999).

[21] Even if we implausibly assume that she was widowed five times without the narrative specifying that circumstance, many of her peers would have assumed (rightly or wrongly) foul play: when several husbands of a wife died in succession, it was assumed that something was wrong with the wife (perhaps the attachment of a demon, as in Tob 3:8).Keener, C. S.

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约翰福音

013 约翰的见证与价值观 约3章22-36

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013 约翰的见证与价值观 约3章22-36

    • 小孩子:你的爸爸买了ipad 给弟弟/妹妹/哥哥/姐姐,没有买给你。你会如何?
    • 小孩子:你本来是妈妈的宝贝孩子,后来弟弟妹妹,比你更出色,很多人都喜欢他。你会如何?
    • 3:22-26 这事以后,耶稣和门徒来到犹太地[1],他和他们住在那里,并且施洗。23 约翰也在靠近撒冷的艾ài嫩nèn施洗,因为那里水多;众人都去受洗。24 那时约翰还没有入狱。25 约翰的门徒和一个犹太人为洁净礼发生辩论[2]。26 他们来到约翰那里,对他说:“拉比,你看[3],从前和你在约旦河东,你为他作见证的那一位,他也在施洗,众人都到他那里去了。”

    • Pic 背景:之前有成千上万的犹太人受施洗约翰,耶稣也是受施洗约翰的洗 (太3:13-15)
    • 背景:耶稣的门徒(4:2)与施洗约翰在同样的地方施洗,但越来越多人往耶稣那里去
    • 问:约翰与耶稣为什么要这样靠近作事工?(V23)因为那里水多,方便成千的人洗礼
    • 背景:约翰的门徒和一个犹太人为洁净礼发生辩论
    • 约翰的门徒可能觉得受了委屈,到老师面前抱怨
    • 他们感到忿忿不平(嫉妒),人都往耶稣那里去
    • 都是事奉上帝,可惜施洗约翰的门徒心里感到不平
    • Pic 本来你卖面生意是极好。后来有一摊卖的面比你好吃,在你旁边作生意。你感受如何?
    • Pic FB.Myer[4]事奉巅峰时神兴起年轻的司布真,信徒都往司布真那里,开始遗忘他。Myer坦言感到妒嫉
    • e.g.假设家中兄弟姐妹、公司同事、朋友当中,一直被升高、成功远远胜过你?你是否高兴? 
    • 1:15 有些人传扬基督是出于嫉妒和纷争,但也有些人是出于好意。(保罗被囚禁时)

    • 3:27-30
    • 问:约翰是如何克服?我们一起来看约翰的人生价值观就能明白。
    • I) 各样恩赐与赏赐都是从主而来 (约3:27、雅1:17)
    • V27 约翰[5]回答:“除了从天上赐下来给他的,人就不能得到什么。
    • 问:为什么这个人的事工吸引那么多人? 因都是主所赐
    • 问:为什么有些人生下来的天资更高、机会更多?
    • e.g.一个给了五千,一个给了二千,一个给了一千 (太25:14-30、路19:11-27)
    • e.g.有时我们得了两千而埋怨,却忘了这两千也是主给的。
    • 主要求的是忠心
    • 12:48 …因为多给谁,就向谁多取;多托谁,就向谁多要
    • 警戒:不满[6]神对待人和事的智慧和主权的态度,揭露人的不顺从,和嫉妒的心。

    • .II)知足:认识自己这一生所扮演的角色[7]
    • V28 你们自己可以为我作证:我曾说,我不是基督,不过是奉差遣作他的先锋的。

问:凭什么我要作配角?我不比他差,为什么不是我当主角jué?

    • 12:1 摩西娶了古实女子为妻。米利暗和亚伦因他所娶的古实女子就毁谤他,2 说:「难道耶和华单与摩西说话,不也与我们说话吗?」…  // 米利暗长大麻风

    • 16:3 聚集攻击摩西、亚伦,说:「你们擅自专权!全会众个个既是圣洁,耶和华也在他们中间,你们为什麽自高,超过耶和华的会众呢?  //(参:诗106:16)神使地开了吞灭可拉一党

    • 撒上23:17 对他说:“你不要惧怕!我父亲扫罗的手必不能害你。你必要作以色列的王,我要在你以下位居第二,… //

    • 约拿单像约翰一样,知道自己的角色。他们心肝乐意作手下

    • .III)一生为基督与神的国
    • V29娶新娘的是新郎[8]新郎的好友站在那里听着,听见新郎的声音就非常喜乐因此,我这喜乐满溢了!
    • 没有因自己的事工没落,就垂头丧气,反而是喜乐
    • 约翰比喻耶稣是新郎,他只是为新郎高兴的好友
    • Pic旧约:新郎比喻上帝或基督 (何2:16–20、赛54:5、62:4-5、耶 2:2、启19:7)
    • 约翰明白基督就是要来的新郎。来拯救神的子民。
    • 约翰在乎的是基督与神的国,所以他能胜过一切得与失
    • 当一个人以主的国为念。他的心态就不一样了。
    • 11: 28 摩西的侍从,嫩的儿子约书亚,就是摩西所拣选的,回答说:“我主,摩西,请你制止他们。”29  摩西对他说:“你为我的缘故嫉妒吗?但愿耶和华的人民都是先知,但愿耶和华把他的灵降在他们身上。”[9]  (背景:有两位长老不顺服摩西的吩咐集合在会幕,神还是把圣灵赐给那两位长老,约书亚就反对。)
    • 约翰的门徒与约书亚都为他们的老师感到嫉妒。

    • .IV)一生高举基督
    • 3:30 他必兴旺,我必衰微。
    • 教会的大使命是使万民作基督的门徒。
    • 我们栽培的是耶稣基督的门徒,不是我们的门徒
    • 如果我们带领的人是跟谁我们,而不是主耶稣,那我们就彻底失败了
    • 我们在他们的心中的地位应该逐渐衰微,基督应该在他们内心继续兴旺

    • 反省:e.g.以后我们可能有不同的牧师。若是有一个牧师的恩赐在我之上?
    • e.g.以后我们会有不同的长老。一定会有一些长老是更有威望的
    • O提前5:17那善於管理教会的长老,当以为配受加倍的敬奉;那劳苦传道教导人的,更当如此
    • 问:会不会善於管理的长老与传道人受到加倍的敬奉,造成嫉妒?
    • e.g.不是所有的教师都是受学生欢迎的。
    • e.g.你是事工的负责人,你所一手提拔的后来比你更受欢迎

    • Pic回顾刚才的故事 E.g. F.B.Myer认罪祷告后。他后来看见司布真的事奉壮大,而感到喜乐高兴。后来,他愿意自己的事工衰微,司布真的事工壮大。 
    • 嫉妒是一个很可怕的罪。
    • e.g.该隐因为嫉妒上帝看中亚伯,结果杀害亚伯。(创4:5)
    • e.g.约瑟的兄弟因嫉妒弟弟,后来害了他。 (创37:11)
    • e.g.法利赛人嫉妒耶稣,杀害耶稣(约12:19,太27:18)
    • e.g.兄弟姐妹嫉妒,因父母更爱一位。结果不和睦。
    • 我很害怕我嫉妒人,我也害怕人嫉妒我。
    • Pic P贬低/批评他的成就P刻意表现自己P心里会与那人竞争P人家作什么你也跟着作什么 P在别人面前讲他的坏话 P看见他失败心里就高兴 P心里讨厌/憎恨他 P 他成功你却高兴不起来。
    • 5:25 我们若是靠圣灵得生,就当靠圣灵行事。26  不要贪图虚名,彼此惹气,互相嫉妒。

    • V31[10]“那从天上来的,是在万有之上;从地上来的,是属于地,所讲的也是属于地。那从天上来的,是超越万有之上。32  他把所见所闻的见证出来,可是没有人接受他的见证。33  那接受他的见证的,就确认【就印上印,证明】上帝是真的。34  上帝所差来的那一位讲上帝的话,因为上帝把圣灵无限[11]地赐给他。35  父爱子[12],已经把万有交在他手里。36  信子的,有永生;不信从子的,必不得见永生,上帝的震怒却常在他身上。”

    • V31-36 应该是使徒约翰的见证
    • 解释为什么耶稣基督被高举,而施洗约翰的事工衰微
    • 耶稣是从天上来的,是超越万有之上 V31 (参:约1:1-3) P耶稣见证上帝,但人不接受他的见证 V32P接受耶稣就是接受上帝 V33 P上帝把圣灵充满无限的赐给耶稣 V34  (先知们被圣灵充满是有限的不像耶稣)P父爱子,把万有交在耶稣手里,让祂掌管一切 V35(参:太28:18)P拒绝耶稣的后果是没有永生,上帝的震怒却常在他身上 V36

    • 总结:求主赐我们恩典看清自己的罪。我们是否犯了嫉妒之罪?
    • 🙏 求主赦免我们,医治我们。求主帮助我们效法施洗约翰


[1] . It seems best to render the phrase as in NIV, and assume that John simply means Jesus and his disciples went out from the urban to the rural areas of Judea. Carson, D. A.

[2] The argument that developed between John’s disciples and a certain Jew (the plural reading, ‘the Jews’, is less likely: cf. Metzger, p. 205) was over the matter of ceremonial washing (same word as in 2:6). The debate, in other words, did not focus on the relative merits of the baptism administered by John versus the baptism administered by Jesus, but over distinctly Jewish purification rites. Carson, D. A.

[3]  it is far more likely that their words are resentful and embittered. Otherwise the tone of John’s response to them (vv. 27–30) is incomprehensible. Carson, D. A.

[4] The great preacher F. B. Meyer ministered in London at the same time that Charles Spurgeon was preaching in the great Metropolitan Tabernacle. As a young man, though dynamic and gifted, Meyer would stand on the steps of his church Sunday after Sunday and watch the carriages flow by to Spurgeon’s church. That was very difficult for him, but he did it. Another story comes from the end of Meyer’s life, when he was preaching in Northfield at the invitation of D. L. Moody. G. Campbell Morgan was preaching there at the same time. Great crowds came to hear Morgan, but very small crowds came to hear Meyer. The latter was not in his prime, and Morgan was in the full bloom of his preaching power. Meyer came back to his cottage one day feeling very sad, and he began to pray. Later he was heard saying to people, “Have you heard Campbell Morgan preach? Did you hear that message this morning? My, God is upon that man!” “He must become greater; I must become less.” That is the proper conduct. Hughes, R. K.

[5] Humanly speaking, John the Baptist faced a temptation that could have easily overcome him. He had been at the crest of his popularity. All segments of society had come out to hear him. Some people said he was Elijah incarnate. Herod himself was listening to John. But now his crowds had begun to diminish. Yet he rejoiced! No wonder we read in Matthew 11:11, “I tell you the truth: Among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist.” His humility was the key to his greatness, just as it was with Moses, and it is the key to any greatness of ours, whether we serve in a great or small place. We should rejoice in the success of others, for we are bound together in Christ. Hughes, R. K. (1999).

[6] Deep discontent over God’s wise, sovereign disposition of people and things would in that instance betray not only unbelief and faithlessness, but the worst form of the perennial human sin, the arrogance that wants to be God and stand where God stands. Carson, D. A.

[7] One of the most beautiful jewels in the treasury of the Old Testament is the story of Jonathan and David. After David’s victory over Goliath, according to 1 Samuel 18:1, “Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself.” That commitment grew with time, and Jonathan set himself to make David king, although as the oldest son of Saul, King of Israel, Jonathan was heir apparent to the throne. Rather than pursuing his own interests and advantage, Jonathan acted as a reconciler between his father and David and literally saved David’s life. On the day David finally became king, Jonathan was not there, for he had died in battle along with his father. No one who has ever read David’s mourning cry for his friend Jonathan can forget it.

  “I grieve for you, Jonathan my brother; you were very dear to me. Your love for me was wonderful, more wonderful than that of women.” (2 Samuel 1:26)  Jonathan was a dramatic illustration of the selfless spirit of John the Baptist—a man who, seeing another who is anointed for a greater task, joyfully accepts God’s appointed design. Hughes, R. K. (1999).

[8] Especially for the Fourth Gospel, the image of Jesus as the bridegroom might stem from the earlier biblical image of God as Israel’s groom.A closer connection may be with the wedding scene in John 2, where Jesus underlined the significance of the feast’s joy by allowing it to continue.Keener, C. S.

[9] Even Joshua, with all of his wisdom, was shaken by jealousy! Hughes, R. K. (1999).

[10] This passage is consummate Johannine Christology,446 bringing together more diverse Johannine themes than even the prologue (though less integrative ones). The view that these verses represent the author’s “theological reflection” on the Baptist’s testimony is therefore not unlikely.447 At the same time, the Baptist’s testimony does not clearly break here; if these are not his words, the writer takes them as the logical implications to which the Baptist’s testimony must point. John is a model for witness: even at one’s own expense, causing one to decrease (1:20–37; 3:30), one must seek to glorify Jesus and point people to him; this is the work that the Spirit empowers (15:26–27; 16:14).Keener, C. S.

[11] That Jesus has the Spirit “without measure” would indicate that the Spirit abides on him (1:32–33) and could contrast him with the prophets, who, even according to later rabbinic tradition, had the Spirit only “by weight,” that is, by measure, meaning that each prophet spoke only one or two books of prophecy.461 Jesus provides a well springing forth within each believer (4:14), but the unlimited rivers of water flow from him (7:37–39).Keener, C. S.

[12] For the verb agapaō, ‘to love’, cf. notes on 3:16. Another verb for ‘to love’, phileō, occurs in a similar declaration of the love of the Father for the Son, in 5:20. Because of his love for the Son, the Father has given the Spirit to him without limit, and has placed everything in his hands (cf. Mt. 11:27; Lk. 10:22). Even the unfolding of redemptive history finds its ultimate source in the loving relationships in the Godhead. ‘The Son is the Father’s envoy plenipotentiary, his perfect spokesman and revealer’ (Bruce, p. 97) Carson, D. A.

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Uncategorized 约翰福音

约翰福音:012 神爱世人 约3章16至21

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012 神爱世人 约3章16至21

      • Pic 小孩子:小心你被罪透过游戏机与电脑控制。
      • Pic大人回家:孩子还小时,你用时间与孩子聊天与玩。还是你看手机?
      • 3章16至21
      • 问:那一句经文是你最经常使用的?
      • e.g.最近我去医院探望一位40岁末期癌症弟兄。我问他预备见主了吗?他点头,心平静安稳。
      • 3:16“上帝爱世人[1],甚至把他的独生子赐给他们,叫一切信他的,不至灭亡,反得永生[2]
      • .(I) 上帝是世界的主
      • 上帝创造了这世界与人类 (创1:1-2)
      • 圣经宣告:世人没有借口说他们不知道有一位创造者 (罗1:19-20)
      • Pic藉著所造之物就可以晓得,叫人无可推诿
      • Pic 苹果大厦 e.g.没有建筑师、没有建筑工人
      • Pic 地球的绘画 e.g. 没有画家
      • e.g.一位小孩相信没有上帝,世界是从无变有
      • e.g.无自己生万有是不可能的。如果无能够生万有,那么它根本就不是无!
      • Pic问:请问哪一个是需要更大的信心来相信?(世界是从无变为有)vs (世界有一位创造者)

      • Pic问:如果有一位神,为什么世界有那么多的苦难?
      • 世人犯了罪所以落入苦难,大地受了诅咒(创3:17)
      • 灾难是对世人的警告(启9:20、16:1)
      • 人因悖逆上帝所以受苦,但人还要怪上帝。
      • 人犯罪悖逆上帝,所以人会灭亡(罗5:12、创3:19)
      • Pic 9:27 按著定命,人人都有一死 …
      • “第二次的死” = 地狱的刑罚 (太18:9、25:41、路12:5、启21:8*、22:13-15)
      • Pic 9:27 …死後且有审判。

      • .(II)上帝爱世人
      • 3:16“上帝爱世人,甚至把他的独生子赐给他们
      • 神是公义的。罪必须受审判。神也同样是爱。
      • 上帝爱世人:所以赐下祂的独生子(主耶稣),为我们的罪定死在十字架上
      • Pic 耶稣代替我们受死。以他的血与死 来赎我们的罪 (罗3:25、5:9、启1:5、5:9)
      • Pic美国内战结束后不久,有人看到一个穿农家衣服的男人跪在墓碑前。一个旁观者走过来问:“那是你儿子的坟墓吗?”农夫回答:“不是。我有七个孩子,他们都还小。内战时我被征召入伍。但在我要离开的那天早上,这个人,我邻居的大儿子,过来,提出代替我参加战争。观察者问:“你在他的坟墓上写的是什么?”农夫回答说:“我在写:‘他为我而死。’

      • .(III) 上帝赐救恩:信耶稣的不至灭亡,反得永生。
      • 3:16,叫一切信他的,不至灭亡,反得永生。
      • 信耶稣的人神应许“第二次的死”不会伤害他 (启20:6、21:8)
      • 信主的人死后,灵魂会到天上,将来耶稣再回来的时候,信徒的身体要复活
      • 问:剩下骨灰还能复活吗?没有骨灰能吗? 能!因神能造新的身体!
      • V17 因为上帝差他的儿子到世上来,不是要定世人的罪[3],而是要使世人借着他得救。
      • 其实世人的罪早已经定了,耶稣来是为要拯救世人。

      • .(IV) 信耶稣就不被定罪
      • V18 信他的,不被定罪;不信的,罪已经定了,因为他不信上帝独生子的名。
      • 上帝应许不再被定罪 (罗8:1)。
      • 赦罪e.g.妓女、杀人犯、堕胎、淫乱、同性恋、强盗、醉酒吸毒(太21:32、林前6:9-11 注意V11)
      • 独生子的名 “耶稣基督”(徒4:12)
      • e.g.今天的文化:反对绝对。讨厌这种绝对 hate absolute
      • e.g.一加一等于二 
      • e.g.空气对你说你不呼吸空气一定死。 (真理一定是绝对的)
      • e.g.一些人认为上帝是霸道的。所以有些人情愿与上帝做对
      • 神不是霸道的!祂为我们钉死在十字架上

      • .(V) 人被定罪是因为行为邪恶并且拒绝救恩
      • V19 光[4]来到世上,世人因为自己的行为邪恶,不爱光倒爱黑暗,定他们罪的原因,就在这里。
      • 耶稣称自己是光(9:15、12:35、12:46)vs 世人都在黑暗(1:5、3:19)
      • 人被定罪有两个原因。(1)因为行为是邪恶的 (2)因为拒绝耶稣“光”

      • .(VI)世人讨厌耶稣、害怕耶稣
      • V20 凡作恶的都恨光,不来接近光,免得他的恶行暴露出来【受责备】。
      • Pic eg犹太宗教领袖讨厌耶稣[5]。在耶稣来之前他们是众人道德典范。可是后来却被耶稣指有罪
      • Pic keep God out 人讨厌耶稣、害怕耶稣的。
      • 问:你讨厌耶稣吗?你为什么讨厌祂? 只因祂说你是罪人吗?
      • e.g.耶稣对一群起初信[6]祂的犹太人说他们有罪,后来他们就离开耶稣。(8:31-59)
      • e.g.在主还未重生我之前,讨厌去教会,最讨厌听圣经说我是罪人
      • e.g.以前去教会是很折磨人的一件事
      • e.g.听道时,头脑晕晕的。头脑空空。

      • 问:如果我们原是属于黑暗,为何我们后来会接受光呢?
      • .(VII) 上帝使一些原本在黑暗里的人行真理接近光
      • V21 凡行真理的,就来接近光,好显明他所作的都是靠着上帝而作的。”
      • 表达的概念与 上文讲述的重生一样(3:3、3:5)
      • 行真理的人 = 接近光的人 (接受耶稣的人)
      • 能够接近光,都是靠着上帝而作的 (约15:19、弗2:1-5)

      • 上帝的爱是伟大的
      • Pic e.g.假设你请朋友到你家住,后来他把自己当成主人,无视你的存在。你不会把他赶走吗?
      • 人却藐视上帝的存在
      • Pic e.g.有谁养了一只狗,被狗咬断了一只手之后,还愿意继续养它?
      • 人是忘恩负义,神却供养我们
      • Pic e.g.有谁会为了仇人牺牲自己的儿子?
      • 神为了拯救世人,牺牲了祂的独生子

      • Pic神爱祂的儿女:我们更是感受神的爱,因祂不断的赦免、饶恕、帮助我们
      • 神也并没有按我们的过犯代我们(诗25:7、51:1、103:12)
      • e.g.一位很少爱神的基督徒临死前很害怕神不爱他。他的朋友回答:
      • Pic一位很少爱神的基督徒临死前很害怕神不爱他。他的朋友回答:“当我从这儿回家的时候,我希望拥抱我的孩子,看她那甜蜜的眼睛,听她那可爱的声音,尽管我已经很累了,我柔情爱着这孩子。但她不是很爱我。即使我心碎了,也不会打扰她的睡眠。即使我的身体被病痛折磨,也不会打扰她玩耍。如果我死了,过几天她就忘记我。除此之外,她从来没有给我带来过一分钱,我却为她付出许多金钱。我并不富有,但世界上没有足够的钱可以买我的孩子。我不会等到孩子爱我,我才爱她。我也不祈求等待孩子为我做一些值得我爱的事才开始爱她。这个实例使病人的眼泪流了下来。“啊,我明白了,”他大声说,“我所思想的不应该是我对上帝的爱,而是上帝对我的爱。我以前从来没太爱神,但如今我爱祂!“from —Gospel Herald
      • 神的爱比人的父亲更大 greater love than human fathers
      • 许多基督徒对神的爱很少,但神依然爱我们。God love us despite our small love for him


[1] . All believers have been chosen out of the world (15:19); they are not something other than ‘world’ when the gospel first comes to them. They would not have become true disciples apart from the love of God for the world. Carson, D. A.

he pronounces terrifying condemnation on the grounds of the world’s sin, while still loving the world so much that the gift he gave to the world, the gift of his Son, remains the world’s only hope.This dual stance of God is a commonplace of biblical theology. The holy God finds wicked actions to be detestable things (Ezk. 18:10–13), but that does not prevent him from crying out, ‘Do I take any pleasure in the death of the wicked? declares the Sovereign LORD. Rather, am I not pleased when they turn from their ways and live?’ (Ezk. 18:23). The same dual track is found in God’s stance to other nations. Moab, for instance, is so wicked that God’s decree has gone forth: ‘Make her drunk, for she has defied the LORD. Let Moab wallow in her vomit; let her be an object of ridicule.… In Moab I will put an end to those who make offerings on the high places and burn incense to their gods.… I have broken Moab like a jar that no-one wants.… Moab will be destroyed as a nation because she defied the LORD’ (Jer. 48:26, 35, 38, 42). At the same time, the God who takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked declares, ‘Therefore I wail over Moab, for all Moab I cry out.… So my heart laments for Moab like a flute; it laments like a flute for the men of Kir Hareseth’ (Je. 48:31, 36).Carson, D. A.

[2] Modern readers of 3:15–16 who assume that it rewards passive faith with eternal life, apart from perseverance, read these verses in accordance with a very modern theological understanding that is utterly foreign to their Johannine context. Keener, C. S.

[3] That Jesus did not come to condemn does not mean that the world will not be condemned; in John’s theology, the world is condemned already and only those who respond to God’s gift in the cross will be saved.Keener, C. S.

[4] But in this Gospel Christ is the light (1:9; 8:12; 9:5), and John is here speaking of Christ’s coming to this world. The supreme condemnation of the people of his day, John says, was that when Christ, the Light of the world, came to them, they rejected him. They loved the darkness.Morris, L.

[5] From the account of the reaction of the rulers of the Jewish people to Jesus during his lifetime, we can understand how this works. These men were the acknowledged high-achievers of the people before Christ’s coming. The law had been given. They were the ones who supposedly had kept it. But when Jesus Christ came, he was so much better than they were that next to him their goodness looked tarnished, like Christmas tinsel does in February. So they hated him. The result was that they preferred to have him killed, removed from sight, rather than allow him to expose the corruption that was in their own hearts and cure them of it.Boice, J. M. (2005).

[6] 他们起初信耶稣,可能是因为他们看见耶稣行神迹。但他们不接受耶稣的话。

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约翰福音

约翰福音:011 不要感到稀奇,我们必须重生 约3章6至13

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011 不要感到稀奇,我们必须重生 约3章6至13

      • 小孩子:Pic君王  
      • Pic百姓、神的国
      • Pic进入神的国 = 成为百姓,得到永生
      • Pic问:你看见神的国吗?
      • Pic问:要如何才能看见与进入神的国?(重生 = 换心 = 新生命)
      • Pic 主重生你才能看见与进入神的国!

      • /(I每一位基督徒都需要被重生
      • 尼哥底母的资格:是犹太人,亚伯拉罕的后裔,犹太人的官、是法利赛人宗教领袖、神学教授。按人的标准而言好像最有资格进入神的国 Christian credentials cannot save one 
      • V5耶稣回答:“我实实在在告诉你,人若不是从水和圣灵生的,就不能进上帝的国。6从肉身[1]σάρξ生的就是肉身[2],从灵生的就是灵。7 你不要因为我对你说‘你们必须重生’而感到希奇。
      • V7 你不要因为我对你说‘你们必须重生’而感到希奇。
      • “你们”包括所有的人。
      • 问:包括我们基督徒吗? 也包括!
      • 问:e.g.基督教的牧师、神学教授、是新加坡的领袖。难倒不重生也看不见?
      • Pic e.g. 约翰卫斯理牧师重生的见证 (之前事奉主却没有救恩的喜乐,因还未信自己得救)

      • V7问:为什么他们会感到希奇? 因他们认为以色列人进入神的国是理所当然的
      • 背景:神应许要救亚伯拉罕的后裔  创22:17-18 、路1:54-55、1:72-73
      • Pic背景:因他们是亚伯拉罕的后裔, 就认为神的国是属于他们的(太3:9、约8:33、39)
      • V6 从肉身生的就是肉身[3],从灵生的就是灵。
      • 1Pic肉身生的是属肉体的(罗7:5、8:8) VS 从圣灵生的后裔是属圣灵的 (罗8:9)
      • 2Pic 属肉体是不信神不服神(罗8:5-8)VS 被重生[4]爱耶稣与遵守耶稣的话 (约14:15-17)
      • 3Pic亚伯拉罕肉身的后裔(创21:12、罗9:6-7、约8:39-44) VS被重生后的亚伯拉罕后裔(创21:12、罗9:8、路19:9、加3:7、29)
      • Pic 圣灵生的:被神重生换了心,才会爱神,愿意顺服神 (结36:25-27)
      • : 你爱耶稣吗?你遵守耶稣的话吗?(约14:15-17) 🙏🏻
      • 问:基督徒的孩子受洗后,需要重生吗?信徒肉身所生的孩子,也必须重生[5]

      • /(II) 人无法掌控圣灵的工作
      • V8 风pneuma [6]随意而吹,你听见它的响声,却不知道[7]它从哪里来,往哪里去;凡从圣灵pneuma生的[8],也是这样。”9 尼哥德慕【尼哥底母】说:“怎能有这事呢?”
      • 圣灵的重生,被比喻成好像风一样。(映射 结37:9-14)[9]
      • 旧约 rûaḥ ,新约 πνεῦμα可以翻译为 圣灵、灵、风、气。
      • 旧约圣经:水、风,火经常用来比喻圣灵(结11:19-20、36:25-27、37:1-14、耶24:7、32:39-40)
      • 人无法预先知道风πνεῦμα从哪里来,往哪里去,同样我们也无法掌握圣灵的工作。
      • Pic e.g.我们无法掌控风,同样我们无法掌控圣灵的工作
      • Pic 无人能逆风
      • 人若能够掌控圣灵重生的工作,就能使任何人信主。但人无法这样作!
      • 被圣灵生的人也有如风一样,世人无法理解明白他
      • e.g.为什么信了耶稣,整个人都变了 ?
      • e.g.能经历到风,却无法看见风。能经历圣灵的工作,却看不见圣灵。

      • /(III) 唯有重生的人明白圣经
      • V10 耶稣说:“你是以色列人的教师,还不明白这事吗[10]
      • 身为圣经的老师,他本应该明白旧约圣经[11](结11:19-20、36:25-27、37:1-14、耶24:7、32:39-40)
      • 问:为什么他是圣经的教授却不明白?因为他们不信圣经!(约5:39-40、46-47)
      • e.g.使徒保罗以前是法利赛人也不明白圣经。后来他重生领受圣灵后才明白(路24:45)
      • 林前2:14 然而属血气的人不接受上帝的灵的事,因为他以为是愚笨的;而且他也不能够明白,因为这些事,要有属灵的眼光才能领悟。
      • 未重生的人轻视圣经,以为是愚笨,重生的人信圣经、爱神的话语
      • e.g.我未重生前把圣经看为愚笨。胡说八道,都是人写的。

      • /(IV) 唯有重生的人相信
      • V11 我实实在在告诉你,我们[12]知道的,才讲论;见过的,就作证,然而你们却不接受[13]我们[14]的见证。12 我对你们讲地上[15]的事[16],你们尚且不信,如果讲天上的事,怎能相信呢?13 除了那从天上降下来的人子【仍旧在天的人子】,没有人升过天[17]
      • :“我们”指谁? 施洗约翰与耶稣?门徒与约翰?耶稣与教会?
      • “我们”= 耶稣和父(约5:37、6:45、8:18、8:28、10:38、12:49、14:10-11、20、15:15)
      • 问:什么是“地上的事”?
      • 圣灵重生的事是在地上发生的事
      • 如果连最基本地上重生的事都不信,又要如何明白“天上的事”呢?
      • e.g.神是三一神、信徒被提到天上、信徒将来的复活、上帝的城从天而降
      • 问:耶稣凭什么知道这些事呢?
      • V13 除了那从天上降下来的人子【仍旧在天的人子】[18],没有人升过天[19]
      • 主耶稣强调他是从天而来,所以他知道神的事
      • “没有人升过天” 意思:没有人升过天再回到地上把天上的事告诉地上的人
      • 问:凭什么相信耶稣是从天而来呢? (被重生的人会信!)
      • 和合本:【仍旧在天的人子】ASV、KJV、RV(一些译本有这段[20]
      • 解释:主耶稣是神,虽然祂在地上,祂也在天上!神是无所不在!

      • / (V) 唯有重生的人信耶稣得永生
      • V14 摩西在旷野怎样把铜蛇[21]举起[22],人子也必照样被举起来[23],15 使所有信他的人都得永生[24]
      • Pic 21:4百姓因这路难行,心中甚是烦躁,就怨神和摩西说:「你们为什麽把我们从埃及领出来、使我们死在旷野呢?这里没有粮,没有水,我们的心厌恶这淡薄的食物。」6  於是耶和华使火蛇进入百姓中间,蛇就咬他们。以色列人中死了许多。…..

      • Pic V8 耶和华对摩西说:「你制造一条火蛇,挂在杆子上;凡被咬的,一望这蛇,就必得活。」9 摩西便制造一条铜蛇,挂在杆子上;凡被蛇咬的,一望这铜蛇就活了
      • 主耶稣提醒他,他的始祖因不信,埋怨神,结果被蛇咬(审判)
      • 愿意信神的话的,去仰望铜蛇才能活命
      • 人子也必照样被举起来 (钉死在十字架)约8:28、12:32-33
      • 耶稣告诉尼哥底母,要得永生。将来看见祂被钉在十字架时要信祂才能得永生
      • 问:你重生了吗?
      • 问:你明白圣经吗?你相信耶稣基督吗? 爱耶稣吗?
      • 你若是明白与相信爱耶稣,那是因为圣灵重生了你
      • 主应许:
      • V15 使所有信他的人都得永生。
      • 感谢赞美主!


[1] Paul, an early Christian writer who shares many ideas with John, seems to have emphasized this moral frailty of flesh (Rom 7:5, 14, 18, 25; 8:3–13; 13:14). John, however, does not use flesh with necessary connotations of sin (e.g., 1:14); for him, flesh simply retains its biblical and early Jewish connotation of creaturely, human frailty. As with Paul, this frailty is inadequate for the true worship of God, for which only the Spirit is adequate (Gal 5:19–23; Phil 3:3).Keener, C. S. (2012).

[2] No matter how good their Christian credentials, they too must be born again if they are to see or enter the kingdom of God. Carson, D. A.

[3] The antithesis between flesh and spirit is therefore not the contrast between lower and higher aspects of human nature, but the distinction between human beings and God. The second occurrence of ‘spirit’ is not an adjective: we are not to read, ‘The Spirit gives birth to spiritual people’, understanding ‘spiritual people’ in some vague or merely functional way. What is in view is a new nature, not turning over a new leaf. Carson, D. A

[4] 属圣灵的顺从圣灵的引导 (罗8:13-14)

[5] 若不被重生:可能遇见苦难会离开主(太13:21),可能会出卖耶稣(约6:69-71)当时的犹太人的家中,分成两种人(跟随耶稣 与 反对耶稣的人)太 10:36 人的仇敌就是自己家里的人。37爱父母过於爱我的,不配作我的门徒;爱儿女过於爱我的,不配作我的门徒;38  不背著他的十字架跟从我的,也不配作我的门徒。(路14:26)🙏🏻 主啊,祢的话真的让我们难以接受。求主帮助我们!a.p.不要因家人拒绝主、离弃主、而跌倒或不爱主a.p.不断为我们的孩子祷告,不断把福音传给他们a.p.我们没有能力使他们信,但我们身为父母应该要爱他们,但不可超越对主的爱 (创21:11-13)

[6]  Both the Hebrew word rûaḥ and the Greek word pneuma can mean ‘breath’ or ‘wind’ as well as ‘spirit’, though in the New Testament any meaning other than ‘Spirit’ is extremely rare. That is why some people translate the first clause of this verse, ‘The Spirit breathes where he wills’. That is unlikely: the hearing of sound and the mention of origin and destination are in the first instance more appropriately applied to the wind. Jesus is drawing an analogy between wind and the Spirit, or, more precisely, between the effects of wind and the effects of the Spirit, and the internal cohesion of the analogy is tighter in the Greek text than in English, because there the same word is used. The point is that the wind can be neither controlled nor understood by human beings (remembering of course that this was written before modern meteorology alleviated at least some of our lack of understanding). But that does not mean we cannot detect the wind’s effects. We hear its sound, watch the swaying grasses, see the clouds scudding by, hide in fear before the worst wind storms. So it is with the Spirit. We can neither control him nor understand him. But that does not mean we cannot witness his effects. Where the Spirit works, the effects are undeniable and unmistakable Carson, D. A

[7] so too people cannot understand how they are born of the Spirit but nevertheless experience its reality in their lives.48 This is a reminder for us not to tie the experience of being born of the Spirit to particular evangelistic formulae, but to recognize that the ways of the Spirit with different people may be different, though always, as this Gospel makes abundantly clear, connected with faith in Jesus Christ.Kruse, C. G..

[8] The person who is ‘born of the Spirit’ can be neither controlled nor understood by persons of but one birth. As the ‘water and spirit’ birth is grounded in Ezekiel 36:25–27 (cf. notes on v.5), so there may be an allusion here to Ezekiel 37. There God’s breath/Spirit (rûaḥ/pneuma) comes upon the valley of dry bones and the dry bones are revived; God’s people come to life. Thus it is with everyone born of the Spirit: they have their ‘origin and destiny in the unseen God’ , not in ‘human decision or a husband’s will’, for they are ‘born of God’ (1:13). Both the mysteriousness and the undeniable power of the Spirit of God are displayed in the Scriptures to which Nicodemus had devoted so many years of study. Carson

[9] While the Spirit would ultimately raise the bodies of the dead, in a text to which John would soon allude in v. 8 (Ezek 37:9–14),187 John focuses on the resurrection life which the Spirit makes available in the present era (John 14:16–19).Keener, C. S. (2012).

(映射 alludes 结37:9-14 ruah 进入骸骨,骸骨便活了)

[10] 3:9–10. Nicodemus’ incredulous question is not How can this be? (niv), but ‘How can this happen?’ Doubtless he himself had for years taught others the conditions of entrance to the kingdom of God, conditions cast in terms of obedience to God’s commands, devotion to God, happy submission to his will; but here he is facing a condition he has never heard expressed, the absolute requirement of birth from above. Even after Jesus’ explanation, he is frankly sceptical that such a birth can take place. Judging by Jesus’ rather sharp retort (v10), the question of Nicodemus reflects, not wondering and probing ingenuousness, but frank incredulity. Jesus’ response projects the blame in sharp focus: Nicodemus in his role as Israel’s teacher should have understood these things. The article with this expression (lit. ‘the teacher of Israel’) suggests he was a recognized master, an established religious authority. ‘You are the Reverend Professor Doctor, and do you not understand these things?’ Nothing could make clearer the fact that Jesus’ teaching on the new birth was built on the teaching of the Old Testament  Carson

[11] Regeneration by the Spirit is not an uncommon theme in the Old Testament (cf. Isa. 44:3; 59:21; Ezek. 11:19–20; 36:26–27; Joel 2:28–29; Ps. 51:10), Kruse, C. G. .

[12]A few commentators therefore conclude that the historical Jesus thereby identifies himself with his disciples. This is unlikely: at this point in their pilgrimage the disciples could not be described as speaking of what they know and testifying to what they have seen, viz. heavenly things (v. 12)…. John is persistently careful to distinguish between what the disciples understood during Jesus’ ministry and what they understood only later. Carson, D. A

Jesus speaks in the first-person plural four times elsewhere in this Gospel, with three different meanings: (1) when telling the woman at the well that unlike the Samaritans ‘we [ Jews] worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews’ (4:22); (2) when speaking to his disciples and reminding them that ‘we must do the works of him who sent me’ (9:4); and (3) when praying to his Father that his disciples might be one ‘as we are one’ (17:11, 22). In the context of 3:11 the first option is out of place, leaving as possibilities that Jesus’ use of ‘we’ here could denote either Jesus and his disciples or Jesus and his Father. As there is no indication that the disciples are in view in Jesus’ conversation with Nicodemus, it is best to take the ‘we’ to denote Jesus and his Father. This is in line with the fact that Jesus repeatedly says he speaks in the name of his Father and says what his Father commands him to say (cf. 8:28; 12:49; 14:10; 15:15). Kruse, C. G.

[13] Nicodemus had approached Jesus with a certain amount of respect (v. 2), but he had not even begun to appreciate who Jesus really was. At bottom, Nicodemus’s failure was not a failure of intellect but a failure to believe Jesus’ witness: you people do not accept our testimony. The failure to believe was more reprehensible than the failure to understand, since it betrayed a fundamentally inadequate appreciation of who Jesus is.Carson, D. A.

[14] . Some argue that Jesus’ use of the plural in 3:11 represents the voice of the Johannine community;237 in the whole context of this Gospel, however, it is more likely that it represents the joint voice of Jesus and the Father who bears witness with him so that he is not alone in his witness (5:31–32, 36–37; 8:13–14, 17–18). Keener, C. S. (2012).

[15] He had already spoken of earthly things, the need to be born of the Spirit—something experienced in this world and the condition for entry to the kingdom.Kruse, C. G. (2017)..

[16] More important, Jesus’ teaching on the new birth is elementary. If Nicodemus had apocalyptic leanings, then he might have wanted to know what the new heavens and new earth (Is. 65:17) would be like, what the kingdom of God would be like when it finally dawned. Jesus says, in effect, that entrance into the kingdom depends absolutely on new birth; if Nicodemus stumbles over this elementary point of entry, then what is the use of going on to explain more of the details of life in the kingdom? The ‘heavenly things’ are then the splendours of the consummated kingdom, and what it means to live under such glorious, ineffable rule.Carson,

[17] The Judaism of Jesus’ day circulated many stories of bygone saints who had ascended into heaven and received special insight into God’s ways and plans. Many of these stories focused on Moses (cf. Meeks, pp. 110–111, 192–195, 235–236; Odeberg, pp. 72–94). Jesus insists that no-one has ascended to heaven in such a way as to return to talk about heavenly things. Only in heaven can true wisdom be found (cf. Pr. 30:4). But Jesus can speak of heavenly things, not because he ascended to heaven from a home on earth and then descended to tell others of his experiences, but because heaven was his home in the first place, and therefore he has ‘inherently the fulness of heavenly knowledge’ (Westcott, 1. 53).12 He is the one who came from heaven; he is the revelatory Son of Man (cf. notes on 1:51). Carson, D. A.

[18] Some ancient manuscripts read “and no one has ever gone up to heaven except the one who came down from heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven.” JB, NEB, Mft, and Zür all accept the words “who is in heaven” as a part of the original text. NAB, however, places them in brackets, and Zür and NEB both have a footnote, indicating the absence of these words from some manuscripts. The other translations which include them give no note (except Segond). This phrase occurs in a few Greek manuscripts, in the Latin, and in a few Syriac versions. The textual evidence in its favour is weak and diverse. Yet the phrase is so difficult that it is hard to see why any manuscript would include it if it were not an original part of the text. The UBS Committee on the Greek text supports the shorter reading because of the strong manuscript evidence. They believe that the words “who is in heaven” were added later as a further Christological interpretation of this verse. Newman, B. M., & Nida, E. A. (1993).

[19] When he said, No one has ever gone into heaven except the one who came from heaven, he rejected all Jewish speculations about other ‘revealers’ who were thought to have ascended to heaven (e.g. Abraham, Moses, Enoch and Isaiah) to return with revelations for those on earth (cf. Prov. 30:4). Kruse, C. G. (2017)..

[20] 3:13. Although the words ‘who is in heaven’, appended to ‘the Son of Man’, are absent from the two oldest manuscripts of John (P66 and P75), they occur in many others, sometimes with minor variations.Carson, D. A. .

[21] These two words put Jesus in quite a different category from the bronze snake. Every reader of the Old Testament knew that eventually that snake had to be destroyed by King Hezekiah, because too many people treated it as if it had some inherent, magical power (2 Ki. 18:4). What spared the Israelites from the mortal threat of the desert snakes was God’s grace; the means was the bronze snake. But we must say more than that about Jesus. The Father has granted the Son to have life in himself (5:26); he is himself the resurrection and the life (11:25), and those who believe have life in him.Carson, D. A.

[22] As Moses lifted up the snake, so Jesus too would be lifted up. The verb ‘to lift up’ (hypsoō) is used five times in the Gospel of John (3:14 [2×]; 8:28; 12:32, 34) and in every case it is used in an allusion to Jesus’ crucifixion. Kruse, C. G. (2017).r

[23] John makes it clear that Jesus’ return to the glory he had with the Father before the world began (17:5) is accomplished by being ‘lifted up’ on the cross.Carson, D. A.

[24] The Israelites, bitten by venomous snakes, had to believe in God’s provision and look to the snake to live. Now God has provided salvation from the consequences of sin for all peoples by the death of his Son, and those who put their faith in Jesus will have eternal life.Kruse, C. G. (2017).

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约翰福音

约翰福音:010 你重生了吗? 约2章23 至 3章5

👉 约翰福音 mp3录音

010 你重生了吗? 约2章23 至 3章5

    • Pic小孩子:你是如何成为祢爸爸的孩子?因为爸爸生了你。
    • Pic问:要如何成为上帝的儿女? 同样的也必须被神生
    • Pic解释概念:基督(受膏的王)、 P Pic神的国、神的百姓
    • Pic解释概念:如何进入神的国?
    • 需先重生:相信与接受耶稣是基督才能进入神的国。 进入神的国的人才有永生。
    • 2:23 – 3:5

    • 1】 一些人因看见神迹而暂时相信

    • 2:23 耶稣在耶路撒冷过逾越节的时候,许多人看见他所行的神迹,就信了他的名[1]。24  耶稣却不信任他们【不将自己交托他们】[2],因为他知道[3]所有的人,25  也不需要谁指证人是怎样的,因为他知道人心里存的是什么。

    • 一些人经历到神迹,后来暂时信了他的名
    • e.g.如果我能行神迹把水变成酒、医治人。必定吸引许多人来
    • 主耶稣不信任他们【不将自己交托他们】[4] 因耶稣知道人的内心存的是什么
    • 他们信只因看见神迹,不是因为他们信耶稣所说的话
    • 后来许多信耶稣的人离开耶稣(约6:15-66、6:70-71、约8:31-59)
    • e.g.他们不相信耶稣是神、也不信耶稣能赐他们永生、也不信耶稣能为他们还清所有的罪债
    • 我们可能会遇见一些人只是暂时相信的基督徒
    • a. 后来神没有应允他的祷告就离开。
    • b. 犹大后来发现耶稣不是他要的基督,就出卖了耶稣  约6:71
    • c. 遭遇试炼苦难,就倒退了(路8:13)
    • 提醒:经历过神迹的人,不一定就是真心信耶稣
    • 一个人必须先被神重生,才能完全真心信耶稣

    • 2】 一些人因看见神迹而信耶稣只不过是从上帝那里来的教师

    • 3:1 有一个法利赛人,名叫尼哥德慕【尼哥底母】,是犹太人的官长[5]。2  他夜间来到耶稣那里,对他说:“拉比,我们知道[6]你是从上帝那里来的教师[7],因为如果没有上帝同在,你所行的这些神迹[8],就没有人能行。”

    • 背景:法利赛人是宗教领袖 (精通圣经)
    • 背景:有社会地位是犹太人的官长
    • 他非常尊敬的称呼耶稣“拉比”你是从上帝那里来的教师
    • 注:没有接受耶稣就是那要来的基督或先知(V11-12)
    • a.p.一些熟悉圣经(神学博士),不一定就是真心信耶稣 [9]

    • 3】要想看见并进入上帝的国,必须先被上帝重生

    • V3 耶稣回答:“我实实在在告诉你‘Very truly I tell you,人若不重 anōthen [10]生,就不能见上帝的国。”4  尼哥德慕说:“人老了,怎能重生呢?难道他能再进母腹生出来吗?”5  耶稣回答:“我实实在在告诉你[11],人若不是从水和圣灵生的,就不能进上帝的国[12]

    • 耶稣没有奉承他,直接进入核心问题
    • V3 耶稣回答:“我实实在在告诉你,人若不重生,就不能见上帝的国。”
    • 耶稣说若是没有被神重生anōthen 或从上而生,看不见也进不去上帝的国。
    • V4 尼哥德慕说:“人老了,怎能重生呢?难道他能再进母腹生出来吗?”
    • 他不明白[13],以为是再跑进妈妈的子宫再生出来
    • 耶稣解释不是婴孩生的方法,而是从上帝anōthen而来的水与圣灵所生
    • V5 耶稣回答:“我实实在在告诉你,人若不是从水和圣灵[14]生的[15],就不能进上帝的国。
    • 圣灵是上帝的灵
    • 问:水指的是什么?a基督徒的洗礼[16] (b) 施洗约翰的洗礼[17]。 答案:不是a 或 b
    • 旧约:水和圣灵 a figure of speech经常使用的修辞手法
    • 水和圣灵(主题的联系) linkage of the motifs [18] (赛44:3,约7:38)
    • 旧约:圣灵有如水[19]被浇灌[20]下来 = (赛32:15–20、44:3、结36:25-27、39:29、珥2:28–29)
    • 44:3 因为我要把水浇灌干渴之处,把河水浇灌干旱之地;我必把我的灵浇灌你的后裔,把我的福降给你的子孙。
    • 旧约:圣灵好像水,洁净(结36:25) 、赐生命 (结37:9、约4:10、7:38-39*)
    • “水与圣灵”生的,在旧约圣经中指向重生的概念
    • 4】水与圣灵 指向重生(换心)
    • 36:25 [21] 我必用洁净的水洒在你们身上,你们就洁净了;我必洁净你们的一切污秽,使你们远离所有可憎的像。26“‘我必把新心赐给你们,把新灵放在你们里面;我必从你们的肉体中除去石心,把肉心赐给你们。27  我必把我的灵放在你们里面,使你们遵行我的律例,谨守遵行我的典章。
    • 这是新约的应许(耶31:31-34、来8:8-12、路22:20)
    • V25 我必用洁净的水洒在你们身上,你们就洁净了;我必洁净你们的一切污秽,使你们远离所有可憎的像。
    • 上帝为他们行属灵的洗礼。(用圣灵给他们施洗)
    • e.g.以前我是拜偶像。
    • V26我必把新心赐给你们,把新灵放在你们里面;我必从你们的肉体中除去石心,把肉心赐给你们
    • 上帝赐他们一颗新的心,与新灵(意思:全新的人new spirit)
    • 除去石心(固执刚硬的心) Vs 赐肉心(爱神,顺服神的心)
    • e.g.以前我对神是固执刚硬,神为我换心(重生)
    • V27 我必把我的灵放在你们里面,使你们遵行我的律例,谨守遵行我的典章。
    • 上帝赐下圣灵使我们能够爱愿意顺服神
    • e.g.领受圣灵后我开始爱主,顺服主。
    • Pic 水与圣灵 = 换心 (重生)新生命

    • V5 耶稣回答:“我实实在在告诉你,人若不是从水和圣灵生的,就不能进上帝的国[22]
    • Pic e.g.社会领袖、宗教领袖、精通圣经的老师。看不见神的国!也进不去(V5)
    • Pic 问:你看见神的国吗?  P Pic问:你看见基督吗?
    • 必须先重生! 不然看不见耶稣就是基督,无法接受耶稣就是基督
    • Pic概念:没有重生的基督徒 vs 重生的基督徒
    • Pic没有重生的基督徒:不信耶稣是基督、不信耶稣是神、不信耶稣能赦免他的罪、不信耶稣已经复活。不爱耶稣、也不顺服耶稣。最后遇见苦难时,会离开耶稣
    • Pic已经重生的基督徒:信耶稣是基督、信耶稣是神、信耶稣能赦免他的罪、信耶稣已经复活。爱耶稣、也顺服耶稣、对神有信心。遇见苦难时,会坚忍到底

    • Pic问:如果你是尼哥德慕,你会向耶稣求什么?
    • 问:你重生了吗?

🙏 主啊,求祢用水与圣灵重生我们,为我们换上一颗爱祢认识祢的心


[1] This brief pericope is transitional, connecting those who respond to Jesus’ signs in 2:1–22 with the incomplete faith of Nicodemus in 3:1–10. In 2:11 the disciples responded to Jesus’ sign with faith, but 2:23–24 makes clear that signs-faith, unless it progresses to discipleship, is inadequate.366 Jesus literally did not “believe”367 those who believed in him.368 (This wordplay may reflect a rhetorical technique similar to what some rhetorical theorists called diaphora.)369 Jesus’ response was based on his knowledge of their character (2:24–25), which in turn would affect their actions (cf. 3:20–21).370 By claiming Jesus’ knowledge of human character, John again affirms Jesus’ deity. Keener, C. S.

[2] By implication, Jesus wonderfully promises to entrust himself to those who truly trust him (cf. 10:14, 15) Carson, D. A. .

[3] In the context of John’s Christology elsewhere in the Gospel, he again affirms Jesus’ deity here. Jesus’ knowledge of human hearts has already appeared in the narrative (1:42, 48) and will continue to appear (5:42; 6:15, 61, 64; 16:19, 30; cf. Rev 2:2).Keener, C. S.

[4] •后来也有一群人看见耶稣用五饼二鱼喂饱五千男人,他们便要立耶稣为王(约6:15)同样的耶稣也不信任他们,也不把自己交托他们,离开他们

[5] The rulers are not a Johannine invention (Luke 14:1; 18:18; 23:13, 35; 24:20), but John uses them to timely effect in contrasting the Judean elite with Jesus’ Galilean followers. The few references to them might all imply the inclusion of Nicodemus (cf. 7:26, 48), and they therefore appear less uniformly hostile than “the Pharisees” (12:42), although Nicodemus is also one of the Pharisees, and they, too, appear divided at points (9:16). Keener, C. S.

[6] Nicodemus professes a measure of faith in Jesus based on his signs (3:2, repeating the σημεῖα ποιεῖν of 2:23), but has not yet crossed the threshold into discipleship;1 he is at most a representative of some open-minded dialogue partners in the synagogues (hence perhaps the use of plural verbs, though cf. comment on 3:11).2 John invites his audience to contrast Nicodemus’s slow response here to the ready response of the Samaritan woman in 4:7–29, who is able to overcome her misunderstanding in the course of that dialogue. Keener, C. S.

[7] At one level this assessment of Jesus must be judged disappointing. Nicodemus does not suggest Jesus is a prophet, still less the prophet or the Messiah, but simply a teacher mightily endowed with God’s power. Nicodemus was openly curious about Jesus, but still fell a long way short of confession that he was uniquely the promised Coming One Carson, D. A. .

[8] the idea is that Nicodemus exemplified those who in some sense believed in Jesus, but with a faith so inadequate that Jesus did not entrust himself to them (2:23–25).2 This interpretation may be reinforced by the fact that Nicodemus approached Jesus by referring to his signs—the very things that evoked spurious faith in 2:23–25.Carson, D. A..

[9] 好奇:到底尼哥德慕最后有没有信耶稣?(约19:39)圣经没有说他信,所以我也不知道。

[10]This regeneration is anōthen, a word that can mean ‘from above’ or ‘again’. Because Nicodemus understood it to mean ‘again’ (cf. ‘a second time’, v. 4), and Jesus did not correct him, some have argued that ‘again’ must stand. But Jesus also insists that this new birth, this new begetting, this new regeneration, must be the work of the Spirit, who comes from the realm of the ‘above’. Certainly the other occurrences of anōthen in John mean ‘from above’ (3:31; 19:11, 23). As he does with other terms,4 John may be choosing to extend double meaning to this one in John 3:3, 7, both ‘from above’ and ‘again’; he certainly does not mean less than the former. Carson, D. A.

The word translated again in 3:3 and also in 3:7 is anōthen, which when used elsewhere in this Gospel means ‘from above’, that is, from heaven/from God (3:31; 19:11, 23). Elsewhere in the New Testament it also usually means ‘from above’ (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Jas 1:17; 3:15, 17).45 Jesus was saying what the prologue foreshadows: that children of God (and therefore inheritors of the kingdom) are those who have been born of God, that is, from above. However, Nicodemus took Jesus to mean he had to be physically born ‘again’, as the next verse indicates. Kruse, C. G. (2017). 

[11]  Predominant religious thought in Jesus’ day affirmed that all Jews would be admitted to that kingdom apart from those guilty of deliberate apostasy or extraordinary wickedness (e.g. Mishnah Sanhedrin 10:1). But here was Jesus telling Nicodemus, a respected and conscientious member not only of Israel but of the Sanhedrin, that he cannot enter the kingdom unless he is born again Carson, D. A..

[12] One of the most startling features of the kingdom announced in the Synoptics is that it is not exclusively future. The kingdom, God’s saving and transforming reign, has in certain respects already been inaugurated in the person, works and message of Jesus. Carson, D. A.

[13] Whatever Jewish people believed about the transformation of Gentiles in conversion, they believed that Israelites did not need this transformation of conversion (cf. Matt 3:9; Luke 3:8).111 Thus, for example, in later rabbinic thought Israel was already delivered from the mastery of the evil impulse112 or from the evil powers of the stars.113 Jewish people were born into the covenant by natural birth; requiring a second birth to enter it was beyond Nicodemus’s understanding.114 It is therefore not suprising that Nicodemus might not grasp what Jesus was demanding of him (3:4).Keener, C. S

[14]** Spiritual regeneration alone, depicted with a double metaphor. Elsewhere in this Gospel water functions as a metaphor for the Spirit (cf. 4:10, 13–15; 7:38), as it also does in places in the Old Testament (e.g. Ezek. 36:25–27). The expression ‘water and the Spirit’ is a hendiadys, a figure of speech using two different words to denote one thing, something suggested by the fact that both ‘water’ and ‘Spirit’ are anarthrous (without the article) and governed by the one preposition (ex hydatos kai pneumatos, lit. ‘of water and spirit’).46 Jesus is saying that to enter the kingdom one must be born of water—that is, of the Spirit. This view is preferable because it is also supported by the fact that in this passage Jesus uses a number of parallel expressions which are all related to seeing and entering the kingdom: 3:3: ‘born again/from above’; 3:5: ‘born of water and the Spirit’; 3:7: ‘born again/from above’; 3:8: ‘born of the Spirit’. If all these expressions are in fact parallel and synonymous, then to be ‘born again/from above’ and to be ‘born of water and the Spirit’ mean the same as to be ‘born of the Spirit’.Kruse, C. G. (2017)

[15] The most plausible interpretation of ‘born of water and the Spirit’8 turns on three factors. First, the expression is parallel to ‘from above’ (anōthen, v. 3), and so only one birth is in view. Second, the preposition ‘of’ governs both ‘water’ and ‘spirit’. The most natural way of taking this construction is to see the phrase as a conceptual unity: there is a water-spirit source (cf. Murray J. Harris, NIDNTT 3. 1178) that stands as the origin of this regeneration.9 Third, Jesus berates Nicodemus for not understanding these things in his role as ‘Israel’s teacher’ (v. 10), a senior ‘professor’ of the Scriptures, and this in turn suggests we must turn to what Christians call the Old Testament to begin to discern what Jesus had in mind. Carson, D. A.

[16] (2) Many find in ‘water’ a reference to Christian baptism (e.g. Brown, 2. 139–141). For Bultmann (pp. 138–139 n. 3) and others who have followed him, this is so embarrassing that he suggests the words ‘water and’ were not part of the original text, but added by a later ecclesiastical editor much more interested in Christian ritual than the Evangelist himself. There is no textual support for the omission Carson, D. A. Those who adopt this position, of course, are forced to admit that John’s words could have had no relevance to the historical Nicodemus ….. …If water = baptism is so important for entering the kingdom, it is surprising that the rest of the discussion never mentions it again: the entire focus is on the work of the Spirit (v. 8), the work of the Son (vv. 14–15), the work of God himself (vv. 16–17), and the place of faith (vv. 15–16). The analogy between the mysterious wind and the sovereign work of the Spirit (v. 8) becomes very strange if Spirit-birth is tied so firmly to baptism Carson, D. A.

[17] It is hardly self-evident, however, that John’s audience would presuppose Christian baptism here; even some interpreters who see Christian baptism in this text acknowledge that the Fourth Gospel includes no other clear references to the ritual.158 Further, in the context of his whole water motif, where Jesus frequently supersedes the water of Jewish traditions (see comment on 2:6; 4:10; 5:2; 7:38; 9:6; 19:34), including the water of John’s baptism (1:33), we propose another interpretation as more likely.Keener, C. S.

[18] This linkage of the motifs of water and Spirit was not unknown in Israel (e.g., Ezek 36:25–27; T. Jud. 24:3; Jub. 1:23; 1Qs 3:6–9). Although both “water” and “Spirit” here are anarthrous (without the Greek definite article), they must not be treated as indefinite nor prefixed with an indefinite article “a.” These two words also should not be bifurcated as in some inadequate folk interpretations of the text where water is equated with the water of natural birth (either that of the sack in which the baby floats or the male fluid of the sex act).75 Water appears with Spirit conjunctively in 3:5, and flesh is contrasted with Spirit disjunctively in 3:6. Accordingly, water and flesh should not be equated. In this Johannine context the combination of water and Spirit represents birth from above, a picture of life (cf. 7:38–39) that involves a direct contrast to Nicodemus’s perspective on life as involving physical existence. As indicated earlier, the linkage between water and Spirit would have been familiar to the Jews since both are related to the theme of life. For a people like the Jews, who lived on the edge of the desert, water was an indispensable requirement of life (e.g., Exod 15:22–27; Pss 23:2; 42:1; 63:1), and even Christians viewed heaven as having a life-endued stream flowing from the throne of God (Rev 22:1). Concerning the life-giving Spirit, one only needs to be reminded that the breath of God brought life to Adam (Gen 2:7), and the Spirit/wind/breath of God brought life to dry bones (Ezek 37:1–14).Borchert, G. L. .

[19] “水”经常比喻洁净(结36:25) 、比喻生命 (结37:9、约4:10、7:38-39*)

[20] the image of God “pouring” his Spirit like water on his people (e.g., Isa 44:3; Ezek 39:29; Joel 2:28)184 provides a foundational water image for early Christian teaching about a “baptism” in the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:17).Keener, C. S.

[21] When water is used figuratively in the Old Testament, it habitually refers to renewal or cleansing, especially when it is found in conjunction with ‘spirit’. This conjunction may be explicit, or may hide behind language depicting the ‘pouring out’ of the spirit (cf. Nu. 19:17–19; Ps. 51:9–10; Is. 32:15; 44:3–5; 55:1–3; Je. 2:13; 17:13; Ezk. 47:9; Joel 2:28–29; Zc. 14:8). Most important of all is Ezekiel 36:25–27, where water and spirit come together so forcefully, the first to signify cleansing from impurity, and the second to depict the transformation of heart that will enable people to follow God wholly. Carson, D. A.

[22] That is why all discipleship in all four Gospels is inevitably transitional. The coming-to-faith of the first followers of Jesus was in certain respects unique: they could not instantly become ‘Christians’ in the full-orbed sense, and experience the full sweep of the new birth, until after the resurrection and glorification of Jesus. If we take the Gospel records seriously, we must conclude that Jesus sometimes proclaimed truth the full significance and application of which could be fully appreciated and experienced only after he had risen from the dead. John 3 falls under this category.Carson, D. A.

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约翰福音

约翰福音:009 为你的殿心里焦急,如同火烧。约2章13-22

👉 约翰福音 mp3录音

009 为你的殿心里焦急,如同火烧。约2章13-22

    • 小孩子:有谁生气时候丢东西的?有谁生气丢别人的东西的?如果去打翻人的店会发生什么事?
    • 213-22[1]
    • 问:耶稣洁净圣殿几次[2]?3本福音书记载耶稣是在后期洁净圣殿。有一些牧者认为可能是2次。
    • .I)罪容易使我们偏离敬拜
    • 2:13 犹太人的逾越节[3]近了,耶稣就上耶路撒冷去。14 他在圣殿的外院里看见有卖牛羊鸽子[4]的,和坐在那里兑换银钱的,
    • Pic 背景:逾越节是犹太人重大的节期之一。纪念神在古时把他们的列祖拯救出埃及。出12
    • Pic map 犹太人会从各个省份到耶路撒冷的圣殿过节,去献祭
    • 因为路途遥远[5](比柔佛州大),很难携带牛羊鸽子去献祭,也害怕带去的牲畜不合格
    • 他们所拥有的银钱,可能因为有罗马君王的头像所以必须兑换银钱的服务
    • Pic 在圣殿的外院里有一站式服务方便那些去敬拜神的人
    • 问:他们这样提供服务不应该吗?为什么耶稣要发那么大的脾气?
    • Pic 圣殿外院:是当时外邦人唯一能够靠近的地方。 宗教领袖却拿来变成巿场(V16)[6]
    • 对宗教领袖而言,提供信徒服务,又能增加圣殿经费 [7](一件双雕?)
    • ap 生活的需要,很容易被我们合理化,然后成为我们没有敬拜主的借口
    • e.g.孩子需要补习,学习课程(需要),后来造成全家人没有去敬拜主
    • 本该是用来让外邦人认识神的地方,却成了拦阻人认识神,敬拜神的地方!
    • 反省:是否有任何事情是拦阻我们或其他人敬拜神的事。

    • .II) 主除去拦阻我们敬拜神的事
    • V15 就用绳索做了一条鞭子,把众人连牛带羊都从外院赶出去,倒掉兑换银钱[8]的人的钱,推翻他们的桌子;16  又对卖鸽子的说:“把这些东西搬出去,不要把我父的殿当作巿场。”
    • 烈怒!绳索做成鞭子,把众人连牛带羊赶出去! 掀开桌子,使他们的银钱掉在地上!
    • 主从来不为自己的事情生气,人抵挡上帝[9]时他才生气
    • 我们多数时候,生气都是为了自己的事。但耶稣是为父的事生气。
    • 耶稣发义怒时,展现出惊人的自制能力!他没有打翻鸽子笼!因鸽子飞走很难抓回。
    • V16 把这些东西搬出去,不要把我父的殿当作巿场[10]
    • A.p.主在乎我们如何敬拜上帝。
    • A.p.主爱我们,所以当我们偏离上帝时,祂会以慈爱来管教我们。
    • 提醒:我们要时常鞭策与洁净自己。但不要老想着用去鞭打洁净别人,因我们不是基督,
    • .III)爱上帝的人,为主的殿(教会)迫切
    • V17 他的门徒就想起经上记着:“我为你的殿心中迫切,如同火烧[11]。”[12] will consume me.
    • 当门徒看见主耶稣洁净圣殿时,他们便想起诗篇的话
    • (大卫的诗)诗 69:8 我的兄弟都疏远我,我同母的兄弟把我当作外人【外邦人】。9 因我为你的殿,心中迫切如同火烧;辱骂你的人的辱骂,都落在我身上。
    • 大卫王 (约主前1000年)。圣灵默示大卫写下他自己的经历
    • e.g.先知们、大卫、耶稣 都是为主的殿心中迫切
    • e.g.为主火热的人,会使人感受到他们都是怪人!men with zeal
    • e.g.这些人会发光,就好像被火焰点着! 圣灵在他们内心里的感动,如同火烧!
    • e.g.他们会为主火热,为神家里的事,着急、迫切、行动。看见需要,会自动自发去做
    • 我相信我们大多数人曾经都火热过,(只不过多数是三分中热度)
    • Pic 烧烤bbq 要使火焰持续,就必须不断看住那火焰,并加按时加火炭
    • A.p.要持续火热必须每天亲近主、爱主与主说话,默想神的话,时常以天父的事为念。
    • 12:11 殷勤不可懒惰。要心里火热,常常服事主。
    • 愿主在我们当中兴起内心火热的人

    • .IV)耶稣的身体就是神的殿
    • V18 犹太人就问他:“你可以显什么神迹[13]给我们看,证明你有权作这些事呢?”19  耶稣回答:“你们拆毁这殿[14],我三天之内要把它建造起来[15]。”20  犹太人说:“这殿[16]建了四十六年[17],你三天之内就能把它建造起来吗?”21  但耶稣所说的殿,就是他的身体。

    • 犹太人并没有把耶稣当成流氓抓起来。可能是因为他们心里也知道不对。
    • 但他们没有悔改之意,他们关注的是权利!
    • 他们问耶稣凭什么权柄?你要行什么神迹来证明?
    • V19你们拆毁这殿,我三天之内要把它建造起来。20 犹太人说:“这殿建了四十六年,你三天之内就能把它建造起来吗?
    • 意思:他们要杀害耶稣,但耶稣会3天后复活。他的复活证明他就是基督。他有权柄这样做!
    • Pic 耶稣说他的身体就是神的殿
    • 问:神的殿在哪里?
    • Pic 主后70年,圣殿被罗马提图斯 Titus 拆毁 70AD  (可13:1-2)
    • Pic 以色列的 圓頂清真寺 691AD(The Dome of the Rock)?
    • Pic 西墙,又名哭墙[18]?
    • Pic 圣殿是教堂? 教堂也不是圣殿。
    • V21 但耶稣所说的殿,就是他的身体。
    • Pic 预表论:献祭的羊(约1:29、林前5:7)、祭司(来9:11)、圣殿(V21)都是预表antitype 原型。
    • e.g.3 slides 初型的飞机 prototype.
    • 圣殿是象征神与人同在,神的灵所在的地方。
    • 旧约中的圣殿,其实是其中一个初型 prototype
    • 简化Pic [19] 圣殿 (初型)预表 耶稣的身体
    • 耶稣就是神的殿,因父在子里面 约10:38、14:10-11、14:20、17:21
    • O 约 14:11 你们应当信我是在父里面,父是在我里面

    • Pic 信徒的身体也是神的殿[20] (林前3:16、6:19) ,因信徒与基督联合(约17:21、17:23)
    • 我们是神的殿,因神的灵住在我们里面。林前6:19
    • Pic 所有信徒集合(教会)是神的殿!(弗2:19-22)
    • a.p.我们不用去庙或堂来敬拜神,因为神的灵住在我们里面!
    • a.p.我们可以在任何地方祷告,敬拜神!
    • a.p.因我们是神的殿,所以我们要圣洁 (林前6:18-20)
    • Gospel 你若是愿意相信耶稣,耶稣会把圣灵赐给你,使你与我们一样成为神的殿

    • .V)信心的成长是一个过程[21]
    • V22 所以当耶稣从死人中复活以后,门徒想起了他说过这话,就信了圣经和耶稣所说的话[22]
    • 这里不是指门徒们之前还没信耶稣,而是后来他们更加明白、更加坚信
    • 他们看见主耶稣死后3天后复活,后来就更加的坚信不移
    • 信心也是透过经历神的话。我们信心的成长也是需要时间的
    • 圣经讲到许多事,可能我们暂时无法明白,慢慢的主会教导我们。

    • 问:主耶稣在乎我们如何敬拜上帝,你在乎自己如何敬拜上帝吗?
    • 问:主耶稣为神的殿(教会)迫切,你关心弟兄姐妹(教会)吗?

我邀请你来信耶稣,来经历主耶稣。


[1] John’s record of the temple cleansing immediately after the miracle at Cana (vv. 1–11 note) offers an important key to the whole of Jesus’ ministry. In these events are signaled replacement of the old order (water of ceremonial cleansing, Herod’s temple) with the new (the wine of salvation, Is. 25:6–9; the risen Lamb as the new temple, Rev. 21:22). The Reformation Study Bible

[2] Only a very few judge it likely that there were two temple cleansings, one near the beginning of Jesus’ public ministry and the other at the end (e.g. Hendriksen, p. 120; Morris, pp. 188–191). …. In short, it is not possible to resolve with certainty whether only one cleansing of the temple took place, or two; but the arguments for one are weak and subjective, while the most natural reading of the texts favours two. Meanwhile it is important to note (1) that a detail in John’s account of the temple-cleansing provides crucial background to the Synoptic record of Jesus’ trial (cf. notes on 2:19), and (2) that this early temple-cleansing does not issue immediately in a conspiracy by the authorities to have him arrested and killed, for Jesus has not yet established his reputation, whereas the later cleansing reported in the Synoptics is presented more or less as one of the last straws that call down the wrath of the religious establishment.Carson,

Alternatively, the fourth evangelist may have brought forward his account of the temple cleansing for theological or literary reasons. In that case, the arrangement of his material was not meant to be chronological but thematic. A third possibility is that there were two temple cleansings, one at the beginning and another at the end of Jesus’ ministry. While most scholars reject this alternative, it cannot be ruled out altogether. Kruse, C. G.

Apart from the work of the Baptist (which is manifestly different from anything in the Synoptics54) nothing in the first five chapters of this Gospel is to be found in any of the Synoptics. Morris, L.

[3] John keeps meticulous track of Jewish feasts. In addition to other feasts, he mentions three Passovers (2:13; 6:4; 11:55), possibly a fourth (5:1). This one probably takes place in AD 28. Carson, D. A .

13 John refers to three Passovers (four if 5:1 be taken of a Passover). The first is that mentioned here and in verse 23. There is a second in 6:4, while the third is referred to several times (11:55; 12:1; 13:1; 18:28, 39; 19:14). If, as seems probable, we take 5:1 to refer to another feast we are left with three Passovers, which will give us a minimum of two years for Jesus’ ministry, and possibly something approaching three years. Morris, L.

[4] Animals for sacrifice and coins appropriate for the payment of God’s tithes (in exchange for Roman coinage, which bore idolatrous imagery and wording) were offered as a convenience to pilgrims who had traveled from a distance to worship at the temple. But this profitable commerce rendered the temple, “my Father’s house,” an unfit venue for worship, especially (as the Synoptic accounts of the later temple cleansing show) for Gentiles, who were restricted to the outer “court of the Gentiles,” where the animal merchants and moneychangers conducted their business. The Reformation Study Bible

[5] 以色列大约是北京加上海这样大。

[6] 太21:13  对他们说:「经上记著说:我的殿必称为祷告的殿,你们倒使他成为贼窝了。」 “贼窝”似乎暗示这些允许买卖的宗教领袖得了不该得的经济利益

[7] It is in this sense that Bauckham17 is right: what he calls ‘Jesus’ demonstration in the temple’ was ‘an attack on the whole of the financial arrangements for the sacrifical system’,18 and thus an enormous threat to the priestly authorities. Carson, D. A .

[8] An astonishing number of commentators affirm that the reason for the unacceptability of other currencies was that the coins bore the Emperor’s image or some heathen symbol. But, as Israel Abrahams pointed out long ago, Tyrian coinage was not only permitted but expressly prescribed (Mishnah, Bekh. 8:7), and this bore heathen symbols.67 He thinks that the reason for the prescription was that this coinage was “of so exact a weight and so good an alloy.” Whatever the reason, people had to change their money before making their offerings and this required that money changers should be at work somewhere.Morris, L.

[9] 可3:5、太16:23

[10] 21:13 … 我的殿必称为祷告的殿,你们倒使他成为贼窝了[10]。可能是第二次洁净圣殿(赛56:7、耶7:11)

Perhaps most importantly, there is little evidence that Jerusalem’s aristocracy profited directly from the commercial activity in the temple, whether from selling or money-changing. That polemical texts which often complain about the priestly aristocracy are silent about them profiting from sales in the temple makes it unlikely that they did so.293 Granted, according to tradition some patrician sages profited from the sale of ritually pure merchandise in the temple.294 Further, even if they were involved in trade, our texts cannot reveal the motives of those involved in such trade; second-century sages warned against those who dealt with sacred merchandise such as Torah scrolls for profit rather than for God’s honor.295 But this does not constitute evidence that economic exploitation was at the center of the activity in the temple or of Jesus’ protest there.Keener, C. S.

[11] Jesus, like the psalmist, and like Phinehas, Elijah and Mattathias before him (cf. Num. 25:6–13; 1 Kgs 19:10, 14; Sirach 48:1–4; 1 Maccabees 2:23–26), was consumed with zeal to preserve God’s honour. Kruse, C. G..

[12] Jesus fulfills the prophecy of Mal. 3:1–4. He comes suddenly to the temple and purifies the sons of Levi, as a demonstration of His zeal for God and for keeping God’s ordinances holy. The Reformation Study Bible

Dodd (IFG, p. 300) suggests there is an allusion to Zechariah 14:21: ‘And on that day there will no longer be a merchant in the house of the LORD Almighty.’ Equally, John may be alluding to Malachi 3:1, 3: ‘Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his temple … he will purify the Levites and refine them like gold and silver.’ This means that this act of prophetic symbolism was a denunciation of worship that was not pure (cf. also Ezk. 10:15–19; 11:22–23). It was a prophetic invitation to worship God from the heart, without clamour or distracting influences. At the same time it leads into a related theme: the temple itself, the focal point where God and believers meet, where God accepts believers because of a bloody sacrifice, will be superseded by another ‘temple’, another sacrifice (vv. 18–22) Carson, D. A.

The psalmist’s zeal for God’s house (Ps 69:9, 68:10 LXX) led to his suffering, and thus provides a model for Jesus’ zeal.340 As this zeal “consumed” the psalmist, so Jesus would be “consumed”—bring life to others by his death (6:51–53). Johannine Christians would remember that their Lord opposed not their Jewish heritage itself, but those he considered its illegal guardians. Throughout the Gospel, Jesus is zealous for his Father’s will and ultimately dies in obedience to it (10:17–18; 14:31).Keener, C. S.

[13] Their demand arose from the facts that the Jews were a very practical race and that they expected God to perform mighty miracles when the messianic age dawned.80 Thus their test for a messianic claimant was, Can he do the signs of the Messiah? Paul could think of the Jews as seekers after signs just as typically as the Greeks were pursuers of wisdom (1 Cor. 1:22) Morris, L.

[14] Second, for Jesus to make this identification, after cleansing the temple in Jerusalem, means that he himself saw the connection between the temple and his own body to be fundamentally typological. We are inclined to think of ‘prophecy’ as verbal prediction that is ‘fulfilled’ when the event predicted by the prophecy has come to pass. But there is ample evidence that at least some New Testament writers, ultimately learning their principles of interpretation from Jesus himself, understood that some things ‘predicted’ in the Old Testament were not set out as verbal predictions, but as pictures, events, people, institutions. The sacrifices mandated by the Mosaic law included some built-in features that forced the thoughtful reader to expect a sacrifice beyond themselves; the law anticipated holiness from the heart; the system of priests looked forward to a perfect mediator; David and his kingdom announced, in their very being, the promise of a perfect David (cf. notes on 2:17). Such links cannot be traced out in detail here; but it appears that the temple in Jerusalem is being viewed in such a typological way.Carson, D. A.

Different words are used to denote the temple in 2:13–22. The first, hieron, is used frequently in the Gospel of John to refer to the whole temple complex (2:14, 15; 5:14; 7:14; 7:28; 8:2, 20, 59; 10:23; 11:56; 18:20). The second, naos, used only in this passage in the Gospel of John, can refer to either the whole complex or the inner sanctuary. Jesus uses naos when speaking metaphorically of his own body as a temple. The third expression used to denote the temple is oikos tou patros mou (‘my Father’s house’). Jesus used this expression when he accused people of turning his Father’s house into a house of merchandise (2:16). It stresses that the temple belongs to God and is to be used for his purposes. Kruse, C. G. (2017).

[15] which John alone records (v. 19), probably was the basis for the accusation by false witnesses who misconstrued His meaning (Matt. 26:61; Mark 14:58), and again for the taunting comment of some spectators at the crucifixion (Matt. 27:40; Mark 15:29). The Reformation Study Bible

[16] The sign Jesus offered the temple authorities was in effect the same one he offered the scribes and Pharisees in Matthew 12:39–40: A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.Jesus’ answer, interpreted by the evangelist, constitutes the first clear reference to Jesus’ death in the Gospel of John. Kruse, C. G..

[17] forty-six years. The sentence itself does not indicate whether the temple was finished or was still under construction after these years of building. The first-century Jewish historian Josephus (Antiquities, 15.380) says that the temple was begun in the eighteenth year of Herod the Great (around 19 b.c.) and was not completed until the reign of Herod Agrippa (a.d. 63), indicating that construction was still continuing in Jesus’ time. The Reformation Study Bible

[18] According to Jewish Law, one is obliged to grieve and rend one’s garment upon visiting the Western Wall and seeing the desolate site of the Temple.[145] Bach (17th century) instructs that “when one sees the Gates of Mercy which are situated in the Western Wall, which is the wall King David built, he should recite: Her gates are sunk into the ground; he hath destroyed and broken her bars: her king and her princes are among the nations: the law is no more; her prophets also find no vision from the Lord”.[146] Some scholars write that rending one’s garments is not applicable nowadays as Jerusalem is under Jewish control. Others disagree, pointing to the fact that the Temple Mount is controlled by the Muslim waqf and that the mosques which sit upon the Temple site should increase feelings of distress. If one hasn’t seen the Wall for over 30 days, the prevailing custom is to rend one’s garments, but this can be avoided if one visits on the Sabbath or on festivals.[147] According to Donneal Epstein, a person who has not seen the Wall within the last 30 days should recite: “Our Holy Temple, which was our glory, in which our forefathers praised You, was burned and all of our delights were destroyed”.[148] wiki

[19] 伊甸园(创3:8)、何烈山(出3:1-5) 、西乃山(出19:11-17)、会幕(出40:34-35)、所罗门圣殿 957BC (代下7:1-2)、被掳巴比伦时上帝与祂的百姓同在 (耶42:11)、重建第二圣殿(亚8:9)、耶稣的身体(玛3:1、太1:23、V21)、信徒的身体(林前12:27、弗2:19-22、弗4:12、林前6:19)

[20] 信耶稣的人与耶稣属灵的联合 (约17:21-23)。 教会(众信徒)是耶稣的身体 (林前12:27、弗4:12)

[21] All the misunderstandings in this group (e.g. 2:18–22; 6:32–35; 10:1–6) were removed with the passage of time—usually the period from the onset of the misunderstanding to the resurrection of Jesus. From that point on there is no misunderstanding. That does not mean that everyone accepts the postulate that Jesus is the true temple, or the true bread from heaven, or the good shepherd; what it means is that Christians have come to understand it and believe it, while those to whom they are witnessing understand the claims well enough but choose not to believe them (at least initially).Carson, D. A.

[22] 2:22 his disciples remembered. During His final instruction of the disciples before His arrest, Jesus promises that what He has taught them will be brought to their remembrance by the Holy Spirit (14:25, 26). The ability to predict events otherwise unknowable is evidence of divine authority. This applies to the prophecies of the OT and to the predictions made by Jesus, especially about His resurrection. The Reformation Study Bible

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约翰福音

约翰福音:08 他吩咐你们什么,就作什么 约2章1至12

👉 约翰福音 mp3录音

008 他吩咐你们什么,就作什么 约2章1至12

    • 小孩子:遇见困难第一个找谁?
    • 2:1-12
    • Pic“第三天” 在迦拿有婚宴,应该是耶稣呼召拿但业后的第三天
    • 耶稣的母亲似乎与新郎很熟悉,耶稣与他的门徒[1]都被邀请了。
    • 背景:犹太人婚礼是人生大事[2]。婚宴是可以连续7天。
    • 文化与传统婚宴上的酒必须管够。他们的酒的酒精浓度是我们今天红酒 1/3 至 1/10 的浓度[3]
    • 婚宴上酒不够是,非常失礼[4]
    • 2:1 第三天[5],在加利利的迦拿有婚筵,耶稣的母亲在那里;2  耶稣和门徒也被邀请参加婚筵。3  酒用尽了,耶稣的母亲[6]对他说:“他们没有酒了。”

    • 耶稣的母亲看见婚宴上出现了严重的问题。“他们没有酒了”
    • 背景:没有酒会被人嘲笑的。
    • 出现困难时,耶稣的母亲把问题带到耶稣面前
    • 背景:在这之前耶稣应该是从来没开始行神迹(V11)因约翰说这是头一件神迹(V11)。
    • Pic伪经中称耶稣小时候把粘土造的鸽子,变成真的鸽子 (多半是捏造的)主耶稣从来不为自己行一件神迹,他一生只遵行上帝的心意(5:30; 8:29)。
    • 玛丽亚相信耶稣,可能是知道他拥有极大的智慧(路2:40),她相信耶稣一定能够解决问题!

    • 问:你面对极大困难时,你第一个找谁?
    • .I)要以信心寻求主耶稣
    • 问:你现在正在面对难题吗?你单单依靠自己的力量,还是依靠人?

    • V4  耶稣说:“母亲 γυνή[7](原文作“妇人”),我跟你有什么关系呢【我与你有什麽相干】?..
    • 在原文中主耶稣称玛丽亚为 γυνή“妇人” 尊敬女士 Madam
    • 主似乎轻微的责备[8]他的母亲。
    • V4 … 我跟你有什么关系呢【我与你有什麽相干】?
    • 问:如果你叫儿子做事,儿子回你“尊敬的女士,我与你有什麽相干”? 你会生气吗?
    • 这里耶稣是以主的身份对玛利亚说话! 主耶稣要门徒们知道即使是玛丽亚也不能命令他。
    • V4 我的时候还没有到[9]
    • 我的时候还没有到 =  指耶稣上十字架[10] (7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1; 17:1)
    • 我的时候还没有到 =  也有可能指耶稣再来
    • 旧约背景:酒:神的国中有永无止境的酒 [11] (赛. 25:6; 耶. 31:12–14; 何. 14:7; 珥 3:18; 摩 9:13–14)
    • 3:18  到那日,大山要滴甜酒
    • 9:13 耶和华说:日子将到,…..;大山要滴下甜酒
    • 用不尽的美酒的时候还没到。首先耶稣必须先为世人上十字架
    • 将来主耶稣要再来时,会与我们一同喝酒(路22:18、30、启19:9)注:“葡萄汁”是葡萄酒
    • 主耶稣就是那要来的新郎[12](路5:34、约3:29、启21:9)!祂会提供那源源不断的酒
    • Pic Screaming Eagle Cabernet Sauvignon 1997 价格新币 $12,985.28
    • 忠心走完这一生的路,将来有最好的美酒等待着你与我!the best wine is yet to come!

    • Γ妇人”,我跟你有什么关系呢【我与你有什麽相干】?我的时候还没有到
    • 玛利亚并没有气馁或生气!她相信耶稣一定能解决他们面对的问题
    • II)祷告受阻碍时,不可放弃!
    • 主耶稣没有义务为我们行神迹,我们受拦阻时要继续谦卑恳求主
    • e.g. 15:26  他回答说:「不好拿儿女的饼丢给狗吃。」27  妇人说:「主啊,不错;但是狗也吃他主人桌子上掉下来的碎渣儿。」28  耶稣说:「妇人,你的信心是大的!照你所要的,给你成全了吧。」从那时候,他女儿就好了。
    • a.p.你们祷告也不要灰心气馁,要有谦卑的信心

    • .III)主吩咐你们什么,就作什么
    • V5 他母亲告诉仆人说:“他吩咐你们什么,就作什么。” 6  在那里有六口石缸,每口可盛两三桶水,是为犹太人行洁净礼[13]用的。7  耶稣吩咐仆人:“把缸都倒满水!”他们就倒满了,直到缸口。8  耶稣又吩咐他们:“现在舀出来,送给筵席的总管!”他们就送去了。
    • 玛利亚对耶稣有信心,她吩咐仆人,“他吩咐你们什么,就作什么。”
    • 耶稣吩咐仆人 把水倒入犹太人行洁净礼用的石缸,然后送给筵席的总管
    • 仆人们心里是否想着:不合理? 违背我们做事的方式?
    • 把水送给筵席的总管?等一下会不会被管教?
    • 如果仆人们没有顺服,他们就看不见这神迹!
    • ap 许多时候人寻求主的帮助时,按自己的想法,拦阻主在圣经中的命令
    • 人往往骄傲,认为自己比主智慧。(这是不可能)
    • 我们有时说我们信,但到头来坚持自己的看法。结果看不见上帝如何改变我们的生命
    • ap信主最大的益处之一就是生命被改变(林后3:17-18),好像水变成红酒一样!
    • Pic 犹太人行洁净礼用的水[14] 象征 :旧约礼仪。 酒[15] 象征 在新约中的新创造
    • 林后5:17 如果有人在基督里,他就是新造的人,旧事已经过去,你看,都变成新的了
    • hope 你想经历到主耶稣所说的丰盛的生命!你要照着耶稣说的去做!
    • 你若有信心顺服,你的生命必如新酒一样!

    • .IV)主能把恶境化为祝福
    • V9  总管尝了那水变的酒,不知道是从哪里来的,只有舀水的仆人知道。总管就叫新郎来,10  对他说:人人都是先摆上好酒,等到亲友喝够了,才摆上次等的,你倒把好酒留到现在。
    • 背景:当时的文化是先献上好酒,等客人喝多了才摆上普通的酒。
    • 总管好像有责备新郎的意思。他把好酒留到现在
    • 总管其实不知道,只有那些舀水的仆人知道
    • Pic六口石缸一口石缸大约30加仑/113公升。总共 相等今天900瓶红酒[16]
    • 惊人的供应:影射旧约应许将来神国中喝不尽的美酒
    • a.p.主供应时,往往不是刚刚好,而是有多余 (太14:20、15:37、16:9)
    • 问:你若是现在面对缺乏,你之前一直有照着主的话顺服祂吗?
    • e.g.约伯、约瑟、摩西面对红海、在旷野没有水
    • 3:20 神能照著运行在我们心里的大力充充足足的成就一切,超过我们所求所想的。
    • 对我们而言,最好的一定是留到最后!

    • .(V)主行神迹的意义[17]
    • Pic 耶稣 不是阿拉丁神灯(要什么有什么)
    • V11  这是耶稣所行的第一件神迹[18],是在加利利的迦拿行的。他显出了自己的荣耀,他的门徒就信了他。12  这事以后,耶稣和母亲、弟弟、门徒,都下到迦百农去,在那里住了没有几天。
    • 神迹的目的是为了见证主耶稣 (约10:25、10:38、14:11)
    • 神迹标记耶稣就是那要来的新郎,他将供应喜乐的酒,远胜过旧约的洁净礼


[1] Up until this point in the narrative only Andrew, Simon, Philip, Nathanael and one unnamed disciple have been mentioned. The first reference to ‘the Twelve’ comes later (6:67). Kruse, C. G. (2017).

[2] According to the custom, wedding celebrations ideally lasted seven days, and many associates of the bride and groom would remain for the full period, abstaining from work to share the joy of the new family. Blessings were repeated for those who arrived later in the seven days.65 A wealthy person might throw a public banquet for a whole city at a wedding;66 those of less wealth would still invite as many persons as they could. Keener, C. S.

[3] At the same time, the alcoholic content of wine was not artificially increased through distillation,75 and people in the ancient Mediterranean world always mixed water with the wine served with meals, often two to four parts water per every part wine;76 undiluted wine was considered dangerous.Keener, C. S.

[4] 2:3. A wedding celebration could last as long as a week, and the financial responsibility lay with the groom (cf. 2:9–10). To run out of supplies would be a dreadful embarrassment in a ‘shame’ culture; there is some evidence it could also lay the groom open to a lawsuit from aggrieved relatives of the bride. The ‘wine’ (oinos) that was needed was not mere grape juice, generic ‘fruit of the vine’. The idea is intrinsically silly as applied to countries whose agricultural tradition is so committed to viticulture. Besides, in v. 10 the head steward expects that at this point in the celebration some of the guests would have had too much to drink: the verb methyskō does not refer to consuming too much liquid, but to inebriation. On the other hand, wine in the ancient world was diluted with water to between one-third and one-tenth of its fermented strength, i.e. something less strong than American beer. Undiluted wine, about the strength of wine today, was viewed as ‘strong drink’, and earned much more disapprobation. Carson, D. A.

[5] 2:1–2. The third day is to be counted from the last event narrated, the exchange between Jesus and Nathanael. Some have suggested that ‘the third day’ is such a stock phrase in the accounts of Jesus’ resurrection that John is using the time reference symbolically: on the third day, on the day of Jesus’ resurrection, the new age begins, represented here by the wine. This seems overly subtle in a Gospel that does not stress ‘the third day’ in the resurrection narratives themselves. More impressive is the running sequence of days from 1:19 on, climaxing in the miraculous transformation of water into wine. Some interpreters see no significance in the sequence (cf. Michaels, pp. 27–28), partly because they count only six days. Beginning on the day a delegation is sent to interrogate the Baptist (1:19–28), the second day finds the Baptist announcing Jesus as the Lamb of God (1:29), the third day brings two disciples to Jesus’ residence (1:35–42), and the fourth day witnesses the incident with Nathanael. The wedding of 2:1–11 takes place ‘the third day’ after that, which, by inclusive reckoning, means two days later. This total of six days does not seem very significant. In fact, another day should be added. This is achieved, not by appealing to the variant at 1:41 (cf. note), but by observing that when the Baptist’s two disciples attach themselves to Jesus it is already 4.00 p. m. on the third day -and they spent the rest of that day with him (1:39).5 That means Andrew’s introduction of Simon Peter to Jesus takes place on the next day, the fourth; the Nathanael exchange occurs on the fifth; the changing of the water into wine on the seventh. This analysis is not grasping at straws. Only here does John provide a careful record of a sequence of days. This may of course reflect eyewitness participation, which in turn supports the hypothesis that John himself is the unnamed disciple with Andrew who heard the Baptist’s witness (cf. notes on 1:35). Even so, for a writer as subtle as John to set out a week of activity, culminating in the miracle of new wine on the seventh day, may reflect more than antiquarian precision. John has already drawn attention to creation: the good news he proclaims in this Gospel reflects a new creation (cf. notes on 1:1). The week of days climaxing in the miracle at Cana may provide an echo of creation-week (Gn. 1). That means the miracle itself takes place on the seventh day, the Sabbath. Jesus’ performance of redemptive work on the Sabbath is later in this Gospel (5:16ff.; 7:21–24; 9:16) given the most suggestive theological treatment in the New Testament, apart from Hebrews 4. Although we cannot be certain that the seven days in 1:19–2:1 were intended to carry this weight, it seems likely, but only if we assume the Evangelist’s readers are familiar with the Scriptures (our Old Testament), and are expected to read this Gospel, meditatively, more than once. Carson, D. A.

[6] But this view is belied by 2:5, where Mary’s instructions to the servants prove she expected something from Jesus. At the other extreme, some have argued that Mary anticipated a miracle. But the section ends by insisting this is the first of Jesus’ miracles (2:11). The second-century accounts of the toddler Jesus turning clay pigeons into living birds are universally recognized to be apocryphal. There does not seem adequate reason, then, to think Mary’s expectations would have been so high. It is more likely that Mary turned to Jesus because she had learned to rely upon his resourcefulness. The traditions that make her a widow by this period are plausible enough: Joseph does not appear on the scene after the episode in the temple when Jesus was twelve years of age (Lk. 2:41–52; though cf. Jn. 6:42 and notes there), and Jesus himself was known not only as the carpenter’s son (Mt. 13:55) but as the carpenter (Mk. 6:3). Apparently the family fortunes had, up to this point, depended on Jesus’ manual labour. Like any widow, Mary had leaned hard on her firstborn son. How easy that must have been, with a son like him! Moreover, from a literary point of view, John repeatedly records Jesus’ interlocutors operating at a purely human, natural level, while Jesus himself transcends their questions, demands or expectations (3:3, 4; 4:15, 47; 5:6–7; 6:32–33, 41; 11:22–24). This interpretation of 2:3 fits into the same pattern. Carson, D. A.

[7] The form of address, gynai (NIV ‘Dear woman’), though thoroughly courteous, is not normally an endearing term, nor the form of address preferred by a son addressing a much-loved mother. When Jesus addresses Mary from the cross, he uses the same expression (19:26). English equivalents are hard to come by. ‘Woman’ is too distant, and possibly too condescending; ‘Dear woman’ is too sentimental. ‘Lady’ is not much used, except as a formal title or on the lips of a New York cab driver telling a female passenger to hurry up (‘Get in, lady!’). The expression can be invested with deep love (as the husband of Pheroras addresses his wife with great affection: Jos., Ant. xvii. 74), but is not characteristically used that way. Bruce (p. 69) suggests the Ulster expression ‘Woman dear’; the expression much heard in the southern United States, ‘Ma’am’, has it almost exactly, except that well-brought-up children in the South address their mothers with that term—and that is precisely how the term does not function on Jesus’ lips. NEB’s ‘Your concern, mother, is not mine’, is unjustified. Carson, D. A.

[8] 2:5. In saying to the servants, Do whatever he tells you, Jesus’ mother shakes off the gentle rebuke and exemplifies the best kind of persevering faith. Like the Canaanite woman who was rebuked for her presumptuous approach, but who persevered and was praised for her faith (Mt. 15:21–28), so Mary is rebuked for presuming on the family tie, yet displays faith that is perfectly content to leave the matter in Jesus’ hands. This sort of pattern occurs elsewhere in John: Jesus initially refuses a request for assistance, then proceeds to help in his own way, often in response to a further demonstration of faith (4:47–50; cf. 11:21–4412). In short, in 2:3 Mary approaches Jesus as his mother, and is reproached; in 2:5, she responds as a believer, and her faith is honoured. She still does not know what he would do; but she has committed the matter to him, and trusts him. Bruce (p. 70) wisely comments, ‘The recorded words of Mary are few; these particular words have an application beyond the immediate occasion which called them forth. D A Carson

[9] My time has not yet come, he says: the word ‘time’, literally ‘hour’ (hōra), constantly refers to his death on the cross and the exaltation bound up with it (7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1; 17:1), or the consequences deriving from it (5:28–29), so it would be unnatural to take it in any other way here……..Jesus remembers that the prophets characterized the messianic age as a time when wine would flow liberally (e.g. Je. 31:12; Ho. 14:7; Am. 9:13–14; cf. 2 Baruch 29:5; 1 Enoch 10:19).9 Elsewhere he himself adapts the wedding as a symbol for the consummation of the messianic age (e.g. Mt. 22:1–14; 25:1–13). Treating the developing circumstances as an acted parable, Jesus is entirely correct to say that the hour of great wine, the hour of his glorification, has not yet come. Carson, D. A.

[10]  this is the first of seven references to Jesus’ ‘hour’ (2:4; 7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1; 17:1), a major theme in this Gospel, it may have greater significance. The first three references indicate that Jesus’ hour had not yet come; the last four indicate that it had come. The hour towards which everything was moving was the hour of Jesus’ glorification, which took place through his death, resurrection and exaltation. Bearing this in mind, Jesus could have been informing his mother that he was now acting only according to his Father’s timetable, with his eyes fixed on the hour to come (even though he went on to fulfil her implied request). Kruse, C. G.

[11] In Jewish thought wine is a symbol of joy and celebration: “There is no rejoicing save with wine” (b. Pesaḥ. 109a; on wine in biblical times, see DJG 870–73). The running out of wine at the Cana wedding may be symbolic of the barrenness of Judaism. Prophetic expectation cast the messianic age as a time when wine would flow freely (see Isa. 25:6; Jer. 31:12–14; Hos. 14:7; Joel 3:18; Amos 9:13–14; 2 Bar. 29:5; 1 En. 10:19; cf. Matt. 22:1–14 par.; 25:1–13; see also Gen. 49:11).Commentary on the New Testament use of the Old Testament.

On the other hand, it could have been a symbolic action. In the Old Testament abundant wine (and oil or milk) are signs of the age of fulfilment: Kruse, C. G. (2017).

[12] it is just possible that the Evangelist sees a connection with 3:27–30, where Jesus, Jesus alone, is emphatically identified as the messianic bridegroom. As such, he will supply all the ‘wine’ that is needed for the messianic banquet, but his hour has not yet come. As this story unfolds, he graciously makes good the deficiencies of the unknown bridegroom of John 2, in anticipation of the perfect way he himself will fill the role of the messianic bridegroom. Carson, D. A.

[13] At the same time, this shorter section (2:1–4:54) is bounded not only by paired references to Cana, but by a thematic wholeness. These three chapters are organized to convey what Paul says in 2 Corinthians 5:17: ‘the old has gone, the new has come!’ ‘The three chapters present the replacement of the old purifications by the wine of the kingdom of God, the old temple by the new in the risen Lord, an exposition of new birth for new creation, a contrast between the water of Jacob’s well and the living water from Christ, and the worship of Jerusalem and Gerizim with worship “in Spirit and in truth” ’ (Dodd, IFG, p. 297). D A Carson

By performing his miracle in those stone urns, our Savior was testifying that the old religious rituals were dead and that he was filling the urns with new life. F. F. Bruce says, “Christ (is) changing the water of Jewish purification into the wine of the new age. Hughes, R. K.

[14] the water represents the old order of Jewish law and custom, which Jesus was to replace with something better (cf. 1:16). Carson, D. A.

[15] Life without Christ is a life without wine. The Scriptures use wine as a symbol for joy, as in Psalm 104:15, “Wine gladdens the heart of man,” and in Isaiah 55:1, “Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters; and you who have no money, come, buy and eat. Come, buy wine and milk without money and without cost.” Hughes, R. K.

[16]2:7–8. The usual interpretation of these verses is that Jesus, after telling the servants to fill up the six water jars, performed the miracle and then asked the servants to take some of the freshly made wine from the water jars to the ‘master of the banquet’. The sheer quantity of water turned into wine then becomes symbolic of the lavish provision of the new age. But Westcott (1. 84) and one or two others have rightly insisted that the verb ‘draw’ (antleō, v. 8) is commonly used for drawing water from a well (cf. 4:7, 15). In other words, the water turned into wine was freshly drawn from the well after the water jars had been filled. The word Now might be taken to support this view. Up to this time the servants had drawn water to fill the vessels used for ceremonial washing; now they are to draw for the feast that symbolizes the messianic banquet. Filling jars with such large capacity to the brim then indicates that the time for ceremonial purification is completely fulfilled; the new order, symbolized by the wine, could not be drawn from jars so intimately connected with merely ceremonial purification. If John has not used the verb loosely (and there is no reason for thinking he has), this latter interpretation prevails. D A Carson

 Each of the waterpots held thirty gallons, so we are talking about 180 gallons of wine! What a great wedding gift to the couple! That gift would provide them with money for quite a long time.  Hughes, R. K.

[17] 神迹可能标记耶稣就是那要来的新郎。旧约背景 :婚宴与新郎(赛54:5、耶31:32、; 何. 2:16–20、太9:15)与都指向上帝

[18] The word for ‘first’ (archē) can also mean primary: it is just possible that John is saying this first sign is also primary, because it points to the new dispensation of grace and fulfillment that Jesus is inaugurating. It may also hint at the ‘new creation’ theme: cf. the use of the word in 1:1, and notes at 2:1. Carson, D. A.

Some hold that John has a scheme of seven signs, culminating in the resurrection of Lazarus; others link the feeding of the five thousand and the walking on the water (Jn. 6) as one sign, making the seventh the resurrection of Jesus himself. Because John does not specifically label all the miracles ‘signs’, it is hard to be certain that John intended either outline (cf. notes introducing 6:11–21). What is clear is that this first sign is linked with the summary statement of the purpose of the book in 20:30–31. In both places, the disciples saw and believed (2:11; 20:29). The time would come when blessing would be pronounced on new generations of followers who could not possibly see these events, but who have nevertheless believed and seen something of the glory of the Son (20:29) Carson, D. A.

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约翰福音

你们要看见天开了,上帝的众使者在人子的身上,上去下来 (约1:47-51)

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弟兄姐妹们·,因为昨天证道后我感到自己口拙无法清楚表达。所以在此附上短文,希望能透过短文更清楚的解释。恳请弟兄姐妹为我祷告,求主加我恩赐,使我每次都能更加清楚表达出神的话语。主里感激不尽🙏

当主耶稣说拿但业“心里没有诡诈”(约1:47)时,是指拿但业是一个心思坦荡、坦诚待人的人。虽然拿但业“心里没有诡诈”但这并不表示拿但业从不犯罪(罗3:10)。

主耶稣在与拿但业的对话中提起 (V47)“以色列人”、“没有诡诈”与(V51)“天梯”时,对熟悉旧约圣经的人会看见这些都是在影射犹太人的始祖雅各。雅各在还未被上帝赐予“以色列”这名字之前(创32:28)曾是“诡诈”(创27:35-36)之人。后来雅各经历人生中许多的磨难,最后与上帝摔跤时,看见他全心的投靠耶和华(创32:26-30)。雅各被上帝赐名为“以色列”,因雅各与神与人较力,都得了胜(创32:28)。

当拿但业听见主耶稣 指著他说:「看哪,这是个真以色列人,他心里是没有诡诈的。」拿但业对耶稣说:「你从哪知道我是呢?」(V48)。这显示主耶稣的第一番话已让拿但业内心感到惊讶,主耶稣是如何知道他的为人呢?主耶稣对拿但业说了“以色列人”与“没有诡诈”这指向雅各的话很可能是因为拿但业也曾像雅各一样,但是后来悔改全心投靠上帝。不过,实情是否如此也只有上帝与拿但业知道。

之后(V48)耶稣回答说:「腓力还没有招呼你,你在无花果树底下,我就看见你了。 」当拿但业听见之时,立即就相信主耶稣就是那要来的弥赛亚(基督),意思就是那要来的受膏的君王(V49)。无花果树下到底发生什么事,无人知晓。但很肯定的是拿但业被主耶稣的无所不知彻底地折服了。

当拿但业对主耶稣说:「拉比,你是神的儿子,你是以色列的王!」(V50),我们从四本福音书中清楚看见起起初门徒们还未清楚明白上帝是三位一体,耶稣就是永恒的上帝,就是永恒荣耀的圣子。门徒们是要到主耶稣事工结尾时才逐渐明白的(路24:27、24:44)。尤其是后来圣灵被赐下来帮助门徒们理解,他们才清楚明白(约14:26、15:26、16:13)。如果拿但业还不清楚主耶稣就是那永恒的圣子上帝,那么他又为何会称呼主耶稣“你是神的儿子”?

拿但业在这里称呼主耶稣是“上帝的儿子”时,多半是指耶稣就是上帝所立的君王。因为在旧约圣经中,上帝所膏立的君王被上帝称为“上帝的儿子” (撒下 7:14; 代上28:6、诗2:7、89:20-26)。所以按拿但业当时对主耶稣的认识,他的认识应该还只是在耶稣就是君王“上帝的儿子”的层面。

主耶稣应许祂的门徒们(V51)将来要看见更大的属灵的事。主耶稣说:“你们要看见天开了,上帝的众使者在人子的身上,上去下来 。” 我们可能会诧异,天使怎么可能在耶稣的身上,上上下下呢?其实主耶稣是借着影射雅各所梦见的天梯(创28:11-13)来告诉门徒们,将来他们所要看见的更大的事就是明白知道祂就是那唯一通往上帝的天梯,祂就是那通往上帝的唯一道路(约14:6)!主耶稣应许祂的门徒们,他们对祂的认识会增长,他们将来对祂的认识是更深更大的。感谢赞美主!

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约翰福音

约翰福音:007 信心的旅程 约1章43至51

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信心的旅程 约14351

    • V43 再过一天,耶稣决定往加利利去;他遇见腓力,就对他说:来跟从我!”44 腓力是伯赛大人,与安得烈和彼得同乡。45 腓力[1]找到拿但业[2],告诉他:摩西在律法书上所写的,和众先知所记的那位[3],我们已经遇见了,他就是约瑟[4]的儿子拿撒勒人耶稣[5]”46 拿但业说:拿撒勒还能出什么好的吗[6]
    • 上文:V40-41 施洗约翰向安得烈见证耶稣,安得烈向(兄弟)彼得见证耶稣。
    • 在伯赛大,耶稣呼召腓力
    • 腓力向拿但业见证耶稣 。
    • 拿但业可能就是巴多罗迈 Bartholomew(太10:3、可3:18、路6:14)
    • V45摩西在律法书上所写的,和众先知所记的那位,我们已经遇见了
    • Pic 背景:旧约圣经(约3500年前)预言[7]基督的到来 (路 24:25-27)

    • V46  拿但业说:“拿撒勒还能出什么好的吗 ?”
    • 注:当时耶稣的事工刚开始,拿但业不认识耶稣
    • 拿但业拒绝相信是有很好的理由:
    • a. 拿撒勒是一个穷乡僻壤,从来没有杰出的人从那里而出 (约7:52)
    • b. 拿撒勒所在的加利利[8] 有许多外邦人居住[9],广受希腊文化影响,被犹太人看不起的地方
    • c. Pic 按圣经(弥迦书5:2)基督应该是出生与大卫的城[10] 伯利恒(路2:4、太2:5、约7:42)
    • 耶稣在伯利恒诞生(路2:15)但因为邪恶亚基老王,所以约瑟带耶稣去拿撒勒(太2:22-23)

    • Ap 我们大多数人与拿但业一样,经常使用部分的认知去衡量一个人。
    • e.g.这人的穿着打扮? e.g.你读什么学校?你家住哪里?
    • Pic e.g.有一位美国牧师在教会门外把自己乔装成无家可归之人。却没有一个人愿意打声招呼
    • Pic e.g.我们在big box 的小房间聚会。你们第一次来进来时,有没有吓到?
    • Pic e.g.邀请朋友时,教会在工业区里面。这教会可靠吗?
    • 我们都经常以貌取人,我们有一些在还未信主前,都曾论断过耶稣。 

    • V46 腓力说:你来看!
    • 腓力智慧的回答拿但业,“你来看!” (1:39)
    • 信仰上的事是需要他们自己来经历的。
    • ap 有时我们不懂得如何传福音,只能不断邀请他们来看
    • 那些主所预定拣选的人,时候到了他们一定信主 (约10:25-27、罗8:29、弗1:4-5)
    • e.g.我自己去看圣经,后来我信了!

    • V47 耶稣看见拿但业向他走过来,就论到他说:看哪,这的确是个以色列人,他心里没有诡诈[11]”48 拿但业问他:你怎么认识我呢?耶稣回答:腓力还没有招呼你,你在无花果树下的时候,我就看见你了。

    • 拿但业还未见耶稣就论断他 vs 耶稣还未见拿但业却认识他!
    • V47看哪,这的确是个以色列人,他心里没有诡诈
    • 问:心里没有诡诈,有这样的人吗?
    • 意思:拿但业是坦荡、坦诚的人。不是指拿但业从不犯罪。(罗3:10) 
    • 影射:诡诈的雅各,后来上帝改变他,给取名以色列。
    • Pic e.g.雅各用精明手段向买了哥哥长子的名分 e.g.雅各诡诈欺骗父亲祝福他。
    • 雅各后来被上帝严厉管教、磨练。后来雅各生命得到改变,被主改名为以色列(创32:28)。
    • V48 拿但业问他:“你怎么认识我呢?”…
    • 主耶稣说中了拿但业的心
    • e.g.有可能拿但业也有像雅各(以色列)的经历。
    • V48…耶稣回答:“腓力还没有招呼你,你在无花果树下的时候,我就看见你了。”
    • 主耶稣知道人内心的事与未来的事。(1:47–48、2:23–25、4:17–18、6:70–71、13:26)
    • e.g.到底无花果树下发生了什么事?他在树下祷告认识基督??(我们不知道发生了什么)
    • 他知道耶稣像先知般知道一切,就立马信耶稣就是上帝的儿子,要来的基督!
    • Ap 你可能会说如果耶稣在我们当中就好,一句话就能够使人回转。
    • 但如今圣灵来帮助我们 
    • 16:7 …我若不去,保惠师就不到你们这里来;我若去,就差他来
    • 圣灵既来了,就要叫世人为罪、为义、为审判,自己责备自己。【约16:8】
    • 圣灵会向人的内心作见证 (约15:26、徒5:32、来10:15)
    • e.g.有时主圣灵就使用我们说的一句话,就说中他心里,那人就悔改信主了(林前14:25)
    • 祈求主赐我们祂的话语(林前14:24-25)Spirit works in mysterious ways

    • V49 拿但业说:拉比,你是上帝的儿子[12],你是以色列的王[13]
    • 在这里上帝的儿子”指的是上帝立的君王 (撒下 7:14; 代上28:6、诗2:7)
    • 代上28:6所罗门必建造我的殿和院宇;因为我拣选他作我的子,我也必作他的父
    • 拿但业当时候还未真正明白主耶稣就是第二位格(圣子)约1:1-3、20:28
    •  你是上帝的儿子,你是以色列的王!”= 承认耶稣就是要来的基督[14]

    • V50 耶稣说:因为我告诉你我看见你在无花果树下,你就信了吗?你还要看见比这些更大的事。” 51 又对他说:我实实在在[15]告诉你们,你们要看见天开了,上帝的众使者在人子的身上,上去下来[16]

    • 意思:告诉你心里的事,你就信? 你将来要看见更大的事
    • V51...你们要看见天开了,上帝的众使者在人子的身上,上去下来。
    • 耶稣说了一些令人难以置信、难以明白的话
    • 众使者= 众天使
    • 人子[17]=耶稣 (耶稣是神的儿子、也是人子)
    • 问:天使怎样可能在耶稣的身上,上上下下?
    • 影射:雅各所梦见的天梯。
    • 背景:雅各骗得祝福后,逃离想杀他的哥哥 27:41 
    • 28:11…,在那里躺卧睡了,12 梦见一个梯子立在地上,梯子的头顶著天,有神的使者在梯子上,上去下来。13 耶和华站在梯子以上
    • 你们要看见”指的是属灵的看见
    • 意思:后来跟随耶稣的人,会知道耶稣就是那天梯,唯一通往上帝的唯一天梯(道路)!
    • e.g.拿但业其实还有很多事情都不明白,很多事情还未看见,未经历
    • e.g.门徒们用了(3年半 全时间)经历所有的事,后来才明白。
    • 你们要看见” 不只是应许“拿但业”一人,而是我们每一位!

    • 主应许我们 V51你们要看见”
    • 现在是2020年,只要你真心爱主,10-20年下来,你对主的属灵认识的深度会越来越深
    • e.g.圣经里面有很多教导,是需要多年跟随主后,经历之后才读得明白的
    • e.g.一位弟兄在一所教会几十年,后来差点跌倒受伤了。后来主才开他的眼睛明白真理
    • e.g.失败、挫折、苦难、与罪的挣扎(成圣),都是教导我们认识主的工具
    • Pic 主应许信靠跟随祂的人,信仰上会成长,终会看见、明白、经历!


[1] Philip’s name is Greek, perhaps inviting the Greeks to approach him first in 12:20–21, but scholars who would therefore dispute Philip’s Jewishness472 reckon neither with the hellenization of Palestine473 nor with the Palestinian Jewish use of Greek names.474 That a few of Jesus’ disciples bore Greek names is not unusual;475 further, had Jesus had any immediate Gentile followers, his Jewish disciples and especially his opponents would have pointed this out, and the later church, advocating the Gentile mission through less relevant narratives like the centurion and Syrophoenician woman (Matt 8:5–13/Luke 7:1–10; Mark 7:24–30/Matt 15:21–28), would have surely exploited it. Keener, C. S..

[2] Philip “finds” Nathanael (1:45) as Jesus had “found” him (1:43).490 “Nathanael” (1:45) was “a real if uncommon Semitic name.”491 Some have identified this character with Bartholomew of the Synoptic tradition,492 but because Jewish people did not usually have two Semitic names, other scholars prefer to follow “early patristic suggestions that he was not one of the Twelve.”493 Arguments for both sides of the debate are inconclusive: “Bartholomew” may represent the Greek form of Aramaic “Bar Tholmai,” son of Tholmai, a patronymic rather than a proper name;494 but the apparent association of Philip with Nathanael in Synoptic lists (Mark 3:18; Matt 10:3; Luke 6:14) may be the only genuine evidence for the identification, and it is inadequate. Nathanael may figure prominently in the Fourth Gospel not because he is one of the Twelve but because he is a primary source of the Gospel’s Galilean tradition, being from Cana (21:2; cf. 2:1; 4:46), or perhaps a close friend of the author or his source (cf. 21:2). His role in the Gospel makes it likely that he was one of the Twelve (a group John knows, 6:70), and if he was one of the Twelve, he was likelier Bartholomew than anyone else;495 but the identification remains uncertain.Keener, C. S .

[3] •当时的门徒们,虽然相信耶稣就是旧约所说那要来的基督。但是他们在看旧约经文时,还是不明白旧约中有关基督必须先受苦的经文也是指向他。门徒们起初对基督的认识不是全面的,要等到后来基督受死复活后才明白。路24:25 耶稣说:“无知的人哪,先知所说的一切话,你们心里信得太迟钝了!26  基督这样受害,然后进入他的荣耀,不是应当的吗?”27 于是他从摩西和众先知起,把所有关于自己的经文,都给他们解释明白了。

[4] Jesus’ status as Joseph’s son (1:45; 6:42) is also attested in Synoptic tradition (Matt 1:16; Luke 3:23; 4:22; cf. Mark 6:3), where it can be linked with his Davidic heritage (Matt 1:6; Luke 3:31), so this confession need not imply the Johannine community’s ignorance of or opposition to the virgin birth tradition.Keener, C. S.

[5] the son of Joseph. This does not imply a denial of the virgin birth, of which Philip may not in any case be aware at this point; it is simply a reference identifying Jesus by His town and family (Matt. 1:24; cf. Luke 2:46–48 note; 3:23). The Reformation Study Bible.

[6] Nathanael apparently expresses contemporary skepticism that a prophet could arise from Galilee (7:52). Nazareth is an insignificant village, not mentioned in the OT or other Jewish literature of the time.The Reformation Study Bible.

[7]  The OT anticipation of Christ and His work is affirmed by Christ Himself (Luke 24:25–27, 44–47) and is central in the preaching of the apostles (Acts 2:29–32; 3:18, 21, 24; 7:52, 53; 8:30–35; 26:22, 23; 28:23).Sproul, The Reformation Study Bible..

[8] As Galileans were frequently despised by people from Judea, so it appears that even fellow Galileans despised Nazareth. Carson, D. A. .

[9] Racially the area of the former Northern Kingdom of Israel had had, ever since the Assyrian conquest in the eighth century B.C., a more mixed population, within which more conservative Jewish areas (like Nazareth and Capernaum) stood in close proximity to largely pagan cities, of which in the first century the new Hellenistic centers of Tiberias and Sepphoris were the chief examples.Geographically Galilee was separated from Judea by the non-Jewish territory of Samaria, and from Perea in the southeast by the Hellenistic settlements of Decapolis.Politically Galilee had been under separate administration from Judea during almost all its history since the tenth century B.C. (apart from a period of “reunification” under the Maccabees), and in the time of Jesus it was under a (supposedly) native Herodian prince, while Judea and Samaria had since A.D. 6 been under the direct rule of a Roman prefect.Economically Galilee offered better agricultural and fishing resources than the more mountainous territory of Judea, making the wealth of some Galileans the envy of their southern neighbors.Culturally Judeans despised their northern neighbors as country cousins, their lack of Jewish sophistication being compounded by their greater openness to Hellenistic influence.Linguistically Galileans spoke a distinctive form of Aramaic whose slovenly consonants (they dropped their aitches!) were the butt of Judean humor. Religiously the Judean opinion was that Galileans were lax in their observance of proper ritual, and the problem was exacerbated by the distance of Galilee from the temple and the theological leadership, which was focused in Jerusalem. R T France

[10] David himself is Bethlehemite (撒16:1)

[11] Notice that our Lord said Nathanael was an Israelite in whom was no guile. He put deliberate emphasis on that word because Jacob, the Old Testament patriarch, was Israel, and he was full of guile—a scoundrel who loved God. God worked in his life until finally, after wrestling with God, Jacob was renamed Israel. Jesus was saying that Nathanael was an ideal Israelite because guile had gone out of his life. Temple’s translation says, “Behold an Israelite in whom there is no Jacob.” Nathanael was evidently an Old Testament believer, like Simeon and Anna, who was looking for God. The Lord knew Nathanael’s character before he met him and said he was a guileless man. How could Jesus know? That thought must have flashed through Nathanael’s mind. Beautiful revelation! Hughes, R. K.

[12]  But the use of Son of God to designate the Messiah ultimately depends on passages such as 1 Samuel 26:17, 21, 25; 2 Samuel 7:14; Psalm 2:7 (linking sonship and Davidic royalty). The link is retained in Jewish literature, some of it pre-Christian (4Q Florilegium 1:6–7; IQSa 2:11ff.; 1 Enoch 105:2; 4 Ezra 7:28–29; 13:52; 14:9; cf. NIDNTT 3. 637). That appears to be how Nathanael used it, but readers of John’s Gospel will quickly learn that the categories ‘Son’ and ‘Son of God’ are used to depict the unique relation of oneness and intimacy between Jesus and his Father. Jesus’ sonship to God, however functionally described, involves a metaphysical, not merely a messianic, relationship (cf. notes on 5:16–30; 10:33). Nathanael spoke better than he knew. Carson, D. A..

[13] On this reading, “Son of God” and “King of Israel” would both function as messianic titles, and this may be what John expects his readers to suppose Nathanael meant. Nevertheless, not only “Son of God” but also “king” has developing nuances as the Fourth Gospel progresses,540 and the latter may come to be associated with deity.541 Presumably in part because Jesus’ kingship (12:15) failed to fulfill traditional Jewish expectations for the messianic king (6:15; 12:13), both his people and others rejected him (18:33, 37, 39–40; 19:3, 12, 14–15, 19, 21). Given John’s divine Christology elsewhere, however, and the possible contrast between Caesar’s and God’s kingship implied in 19:15, he may allude to Jesus as the divine King, God.542 The Johannine Christians might recognize this; thus in Revelation Jesus bears the divine title “King of kings” (19:16; cf. 17:14) Keener, C. S.

[14] 从四福音书记载,明白当时所有的门徒对耶稣是谁的认识还只是表面的。背景:门徒们以为耶稣来,是要作地上政治的王,带领他们推翻罗马帝国,建立地上的国

[15] In introducing this promise, Jesus employs, for the first time, the double ‘Amen, amen’ expression variously rendered ‘verily, verily’ (AV), ‘truly, truly’ (RSV), or ‘in truth, in very truth’ (NEB). The NIV adapts the entire construction ‘Amen, amen, I say to you’, making it ‘I tell you the truth.’ The original Hebrew word for ‘amen’ comes from a root denoting certainty, steadfastness. It was sometimes appended to the end of prayers (e.g. Ps. 41:13) to voice hearty agreement and solemn wish that the prayer be fulfilled; Jesus uses it before an utterance to confirm and emphasize its trustworthiness and importance. Carson, D. A. .

[16] This verse alludes to Jacob’s vision of a ladder or stairway stretching from earth to heaven, on which angels ascended to worship God and descended to do His bidding on earth. As Jacob slept, his resting place became a temple, a “house of God” (Bethel; Gen. 28:12). Jesus Himself is the reality to which the stairway pointed. In a dream, Jacob saw the reunion of heaven and earth; in reality, Christ is the end-time sanctuary in which God communes with His people (1:14; 2:19–22). The Reformation Study Bible.

Thus, he is not only the “Son of Man” who will come from heaven (Dan 7:13–14), but is the mediator between heaven and earth, on whom the angels must travel. The “angels of God ascending and descending” is a direct quote from Gen 28:12. Thus, in short, Jesus is Jacob’s ladder, the one who mediates between God in heaven and his servant Jacob on earth (cf. 14:6); thus the “true Israelite” (1:47) may receive the revelation of God as his ancestor did (Gen 28:12; cf. 32:1, an inclusio).553 As Jacob’s ladder, he is also Bethel, God’s house (Gen 28:19),554 an image that naturally connects with Jesus as the new temple (1:14; 2:19–21; 4:20–24; 7:37–39; 14:2, 23). Keener, C. S.

It is Nathanael, not Jesus, who is the new Jacob here (1:47; Jesus is greater than Jacob, 4:12);560 Jesus is Jacob’s ladder (what Jubilees calls the “gate of heaven”),561 the way between God and the world (14:6).562 If later rabbis could claim that Moses was greater than Jacob because he not merely saw angels but ascended into their domain, no one could dispute that Jesus was greater than Jacob,563 for angels depended on him as the true connection between the worlds (cf. also 3:13–15, where Jesus is the true ascender superior to Moses). This confession climaxes the human christological titles of 1:19–50; Jesus is Christ, the lamb, the Son and the King, but only when the disciples recognize him as the exalted Son of Maan and way to the Father do they recognize the full heavenly reality behind the other titles.564 Keener, C. S.

Because Jesus explicitly alludes to these experiences in Jacob’s life, it becomes clear what kind of vision he is promising. It is quite beside the point to say that the cross is now the ladder (Derrett, p. 416), since Jesus makes no mention of the ladder. Equally, it misses the point to say that 1:51 draws a parallel between Jacob and the disciples: both are accorded visions, and what the disciples are promised is what Jacob saw, viz. Jesus himself.50 After all, the explicit parallel is drawn between Jacob and Jesus: the angels ascend and descend on the Son of Man, as they ascended and descended on Jacob (for clearly that is how John understands Gn. 28:12). To see heaven opened is to be accorded a vision of divine matters (cf. Acts 10:11; Rev. 4:1; 19:11). What the disciples are promised, then, is heaven-sent confirmation that the one they have acknowledged as the Messiah has been appointed by God. Every Jew honoured Jacob/Israel, the father of the twelve tribes; now everyone must recognize that this same God has appointed Jesus as his Messiah. If there is a hint of the ‘new Israel’ theme, it is here, not in v. 47. Jesus is the new Israel. Even the old Bethel, the old ‘house of God’, has been superseded. It is no longer there, at Bethel, that God reveals himself, but in Jesus (cf. Davies, p. 298)—just as later on Jesus renders obsolete such holy places as the temple (2:19–22) and the sacred mountains of the Samaritans (4:20–24). Through him comes the fulness of grace that surpasses and replaces the earlier grace (1:16). Carson, D. A.

[17] Son of Man. Jesus uses this name often for Himself. It not only emphasizes His human nature, which enabled Him to die for His people, but also refers to the heavenly, messianic figure known from Daniel’s vision who is invested with universal authority on behalf of God’s saints—a second and last Adam (Dan. 7:13, 14; Matt. 8:20 note). Accordingly, Christ has begun to fulfill the Dan. 7:13, 14 prophecy that the Son of Man would come and reign over the earth. The Reformation Study Bible

Jesus’ self-designation, ‘the Son of Man’, was an ambiguous expression. Both in Hebrew and in Greek a ‘son of man’ could be a circumlocution for a human being, and on occasion Jesus apparently used it instead of ‘I’ or ‘me’ (e.g. 6:27; cf. 6:20). At the same time, the expression enjoyed obvious affinity with the ‘one like a son of man’ in Daniel’s vision (Dn. 7:13–14), the one who is granted universal authority by the Ancient of Days. Precisely because the expression was not narrowly tied to one eschatological figure, Jesus could take it up and use it without fear of being misunderstood because of doubtful associations in his hearers’ minds. Titles like ‘the King of Israel’ and ‘the King of the Jews’, while appropriate at a certain level, were so loaded with political messianism that they could not be adopted without restraint and appropriate caveats. ‘Son of Man’, on the other hand, lay ready to hand as an expression that could be filled with precisely the right content. In the New Testament the title refers only to Jesus, and occurs almost always on his lips. In other words, he himself shapes its content, and under its rubric fuses the authoritative figure of Daniel 7 with the righteous sufferer motif from the Old Testament, a motif that reached its high point in the ‘servant songs’ of Isaiah 42:1–53:12.Carson, D. A..